This item calls for $210,000 for national health. A day or two ago I asked the Minister of Agriculture (Mr. Motherwell) whether bovine tuberculosis came within his sphere or within the Department of Public Health, and he answered that both departments dealt with it. Therefore my remarks will apply not only to the national health department but also to the agriculture department. I cannot attempt to go into this question at the length I intended owing to the exigencies of time. I assume the Minister of Health has read the report of the Minister of Agriculture. If so, he read that in the province of Quebec 18 to 19 per cent of the cattle of some areas were found to be affected with bovine tuberculosis, while only 2 per cent of the cattle examined in other parts of the Dominion were found to be suffering from this disease. The records of the last seventeen years show that in no other area on this north American continent has the examination of cattle for bovine tuberculosis shown any approach to 18 or 19 per cent of the cattle diseased, with the exception of a small area in the District of Columbia. If the minister viewed this matter from a national standpoint, surely he would be alarmed at the situation in Quebec. In the year 1928, 23,000 cattle in Quebec have been found to be affected with bovine tuberculosis, and were slaughtered. This phenomenal condition cost the country $750,000 last year. The minister
knows there must be some explainable reason for this condition, and he should ask the National Research Council to investigate and report to parliament the causes. It may be due to bad housing of the cattle, if the condition exists at all. I do not believe it does exist, because I am satisfied in my mind that our method of tracing this disease is inferior to that followed by other advanced countries. The work is being done in a slipshod way, but I have not the time to go into that now. Bovine tuberculosis is communicated to man, and has resulted in many of the children of Canada being affected by bone, pulmonary and nodular tuberculosis. This appalling situation ought to arouse the concern and active interest of the Minister of National Health. When we bring his attention to this serious condition of affairs he tells us that the British North America Act has assigned health matters to the various provinces. I want to break down that theory that national health is confined to the jurisdiction of the provinces. Cases and conditions such as these, should surely convince anybody that we ought to have a national health policy.
I wrote the agriculture department of the province of Quebec and asked them whether they had examined any cattle in the province for bovine tuberculosis, and they told me they had been doing it for the last ten years, and in that period had examined 375,000 cattle, and the highest percentage affected was only 3 per cent. Contrast this percentage with the 18 to 19 per cent stated to have been discovered by the federal Department of Agriculture. These contradictory figures naturally *make us question whether this department is actually prepared to carry on its work. I say to the Minister of Agriculture that the research council should convince him and convince Canada as to the peculiar causes which obtain and which bring about such a staggering result. The minister should have his department checked up. I have asked how many men they have in the department whose duty it is to go out and examine the cattle, and they have given me five or six names. I have asked the officials connected with the United States government how many experts they used to examine the cattle in that country and I find where in this country we would have .nine they would have ninety.
I would like to ask the Minister of Health tp permit me to place upon Hansard a statement the preparation of which has caused me considerable effort. I have gained the information from the findings of royal comrnis-
Supply-Pensions and National Health
sions in England and in various other parts of the continent to show the diseases actually transmitted to the children, young and older people from coming in contact with bovine tuberculosis.
Variety of Cases
Cervical lymph nodes
Bone and joint tuberculosis.. . Genito urinary tuberculosis.. .
The following is the information which I have been able to gather:
The British royal commission investigating the prevalence of bovine infection in England and Wales analyzed 1,139 cases both in children and adults. Their findings are given as follows:
No. of Cases Under 5 yrs. of age All ages Per cent125 85.0% of 20 cases 48.0140 66.0% of 50 cases 51.052 58.3% of 12 cases 38.4514 30.2% of 96 cases 19.221 19.012 16.6275 1.1
Park and Krumwiede, of the New York State Board of Health, in a series of 1,042 unselected medical and surgical cases, dividing the cases into three age groups, found the incidence of bovine infection as follows:
(a) Children under 5 years of age, 220 cases with 59 bovine strains isolated, or 26.8 per cent.
(b) Children from 5 to 16 years of age, 132 cases with 33 bovine strains recovered, or 25 per cent.
(c) Adults, 16 years and over, 689 cases, with 9 bovine strains recovered, or 1.31 per cent.
A study of 2,516 cases of various forms of tuberculosis reported in the literature up to 1914 compiled by Wang, of the University of Edinburgh, gives perhaps the most comprehensive idea of the amount of bovine tuberculosis in man existing in western Europe, the British Isles and the United States. He found that, dividing the eases into three age groups, the incidence of bovine infection is as follows:-
(a.) Children under 5 years of age, 614 cases, with 199 bovine strains isolated, or 32.4 per cent.
(b) Children from 5 to 16 years of age, 591 cases with 171 bovine strains isolated, or 28.9 per cent.
(c) Adults, 16 years and over, 1,311 cases with 38 bovine strains isolated, or 2.9 per cent.
For the past three years a study has been carried out under the auspices of the National Research Council into the incidence of tuberculosis in children in the Toronto area, where regulations require pasteurization of milk.
There is a migration of sick individuals from outlying districts into the hospitals in this area. A study has been made of cases in these hospitals and particularly in the Hospital for Sick Children. In addition to this, a study has been made of tuberculous children living in other towns and villages in Ontario. The following is a summary of the study showing the incidence of bovine infection in children:
Bone and joint tuber- No. Type Typeculosis 65 63 2Tuberculous meningitis . 32 31 1Renal Tuberculosis.. .. Pulmonary tuberculosis 26 25 1(laryngeal Swaibs) .. Tuberculosis of lymph Nodes (cervical and 16 15 1mesenteric)
[Mr. Kaiser. 1 16 4 12Tuberculosis of tonsils. 7 5 2
Tuberculosis of adenoid
(pharyngeal tonsil). .4 3 1Tuberculous pleurisy .. 2 2 0
Of 199 strains of tubercle bacilli from 168 children studied, 30 strains recovered from 20 different patients proved to be of bovine origin. All of the children from whom bovine tuberculosis was recovered came from districts where pasteurization of milk is not carried out. In the Toronto district, which is a pasteurization area, not a single ease of bovine infection was brought to light. As a result of this investigation. it is concluded that 12 per cent of surgical tuberculosis in children, leading to operation, disablement, and occasionally death, may be controlled by the simple process of pasteurization.
Certain cities in Canada and the United States which through research have taught their people to pasteurize milk have absolutely banished the diseases, conditions and deformities which follow bovine tuberculosis. I think it is the business of this department to educate the people of our country as to how they may escape the conditions caused through this disease. The Department of National Health should become more national in character and should exert greater effort to teach our people how to fight disease and disaster.