Mr. J. W. MADDIN (South Cape Brecon).
Mr. Speaker, I should be derelict n my duty as a member of this House, I would not be discharging my duty to my lonstituents, or to the people of the province from which I come, nor in a broader sense would I be discharging my duty as i Canadian, if I were to allow this debate to come to a division without contributing ny views to this very important question. Let me at first take a brief glance at the history of this country. In 1775 when the 13 British colonies that now constitute the greater part of the United States kindled the torch, and drew the sword, and cast the tea chests into Boston harbour, they probably had some justification for doing it at that time. But there were a laTge number of British subjects among them who thought differently, and they shook the dust of those colonies from off the|r feet, and came northward into the province of Ontario, and into the province of Quebec; they made their way down to the maritime provinces, and perhaps the greatest Canadian we have ever had up to the present time, the Hon. Joseph Howe, from the loins of one of those United Empire Loyalists. Now, Sir, the Tesult of that revolution was that the people of the United States made a declaration of independence, and began to map out their own career. The other British colonies which now constitute the Dominion of Canada remained outside that union, preferring to live under the Union Jack. Our neighbours to the south, who are so friendly to-day, and who come up to the line with an olive branch in their hands seeking to make an inroad on our natural resources, ;n 1812 invaded thid territory, and our forefathers met them at the frontier, met diem on their ships, gave them battle, md fought to maintain this territory as a part of the British Empire. In 1837 when die Mackenzie-Bapineau rebellion took place, it is a well known and well recognized fact that it was financed m the United States, and that a great deal of the arms and ammunition that were put mto the hands of the insurrectionists came irom across the 50th parallel. Now that was in 1837. The United States were not so friendly towards us then. In 1866 again the Fenian raid took place. Let me point out also that the United States had some
troubles of their own between 1861 and 1865. The people of Canada had entered into a reciprocity agreement with them in 1854, it was to continue for ten years at least, with two years notice of abrogation. That notice was given, and the treaty was abrogated in 1866. During the American civil war the British government was so indiscreet, according to the views of some of the people in the northern states, as to recognize the southern confederacy. On the other hand a large number of Canadians had gone over and fought with the northerners against the confederacy to help emancipate the slaves. A few Canadians expressed sympathy with the southern states, and some of the refugees from that country sought an asylum in Canada. This incensed the people of the northern states against the Dominion of Canada, and the people of the south were incensed against Canada as part of the British Empire, because Britain would not recognize the southern confederacy. The result was that when the war closed in 1865, the treaty was abrogated in 1866. Then the United States, that is so friendly to-day, set about, by the raising of a high tariff wall, to cut off communication between the two countries with the ultimate object of forcing Canada into annexation. That was a time calling for strong men and stern men; the occasion brought forth the men, and history repeated itself as it always does. At that time we had in Canada the late Sir John A. Macdonald, we had the late George Brown, we had the late Sir Leonard Tilley, we had Sir Charles Tupper, we had the late Sir George Cartier, we had the fathers of confederation. These men, gathered from the various provinces, set about to meet the situation which was now fraught with danger, and threatened to wipe the British colonies out of existence. What did they proceed to do? They brought these scattered provinces into a confederacy, they brought them into what is now known as the Dominion of Canada under the British North America Act, which is the constitution under which this parliament is sitting. After that was accomplished Canada raised a tariff wall against the United States. She struggled on as best she could, mapping out her own career, trying policy after policy, under the Conservatives first, under the Liberals afterwards, and in 1878 the Liberal-Conservative party adopted the National Policy. Instead of buying our manufactured goods from the United States, we made a tariff sufficiently high to protect our own manufacturers in articles that we could produce in Canada, thereby giving employment to people within our own borders, and by building railways and canals, extending interprovincial trade, and building up this country without any assistance from the United States.
Topic: WAYS AND MEANS-RECIPROCAL TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES.