Eccles James GOTT

GOTT, Eccles James

Personal Data

Conservative (1867-1942)
Essex South (Ontario)
Birth Date
September 4, 1884
Deceased Date
June 15, 1939
real estate broker

Parliamentary Career

October 29, 1925 - July 2, 1926
  Essex South (Ontario)
September 14, 1926 - May 30, 1930
  Essex South (Ontario)
July 28, 1930 - August 14, 1935
  Essex South (Ontario)

Most Recent Speeches (Page 179 of 180)

February 24, 1926


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February 24, 1926


I say that Canada has reached a position where an exportable surplus of

onions can be developed each and every year, if business principles and good judgment be applied 'to the operation of the industry, and if the necessary precautions be taken to safeguard it at all times-and when 1 say that I mean 365 days of every year. This industry is one which is assuming considerable proportions in the riding I have the honour to represent. At this very moment, growers in western Ontario who have been marketing onions all winter, are faced with the situation that they are receiving approximately 31.10 per hundredweight-or 60 cents per bushel- with a possibility of having to dump the onions out on the field in thirty days because of the approaching arrival of new ones from Texas, C&lifornia and other western states.

The Address-Mr. Gott

This situation is discouraging to the growers in our part of the country. It is a disadvantage in the extreme, but it could be prevented easily if the government would protect our growers, from the standpoint of selling in the fall at harvest time, from the direct competition of the so-called Spanish onions, which are put on the market at prices equal to any prices that our domestic onion dealers are quoting. This competition from Spanish onions continues throughout the winter. Then in the spring the local onions stored and carried over the winter are faced with refusal at city markets because of the coming in of the new onions from Texas and California. If the United States has a large surplus so that the prices there to the grower are low- sometimes they are invoiced as low as 50 to 75 cents per bag-not bushels but hundred pounds-paying a duty of 16 cents-they can land them in Toronto, Montreal and the Maritimes as cheap as, if not considerably cheaper than the western Ontario growers can. This is discouraging to the grower who, if he seeks to take a bag of onions into the United States, is compelled, regardless of the prices at which they are selling, to pay a duty of $1 per bag.

The state of New York in 1926 produced twice as many onions for the fall market as any other two states in the union. New York is much closer to eastern Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes, than is western Ontario, hence the freight rates fully compensate for the duty of 30 per cent, as the duty is usually based on a very low billing. The production of onions in western Ontario could be materially increased if the market could be stabilized, but there is no money in onions at 30 or 40 cents per bag; and the Canadian people are big enough that they do not want to buy onions at 50 cents per bag if it means the annihilation of an important Canadian industry.

American grown onions when imported into Canada are billed so low for customs purposes that the duty gives very little protection to Ontario growers, while on the other hand Canadian growers of onions are barred from the adjacent United States markets of Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, Chicago, Milwaukee, Indianapolis, Columbus and Cincinnati, because of the fixed duty of $1 per hundred pounds imposed by the United States government. We are barred from the United States market while at the same time our onion market is taken from underneath our feet by onions from Spain, the West Indies and the United States; yet our government, not knowing that 14011-82J

such is the condition, sits idly by. If the Minister of Agriculture (Mr. Motherwell), is in his seat, and if he will arouse himself for a short time, I will submit to him a few constructive points relative to the preservation of this one industry in Canada-in South Essex at least, where an onion shed is now under construction by the government for the storage of onions until the surplus stock of American, Spanish, and the West Indies onions is off our own market. I will say to the hon. minister, that South Essex does not want an onion shed built for one, two, or a few political favourites. They want protection of their product to assure them of our own market, in which they can dispose of their own product at a reasonable and profitable figure.

The proposed construction of an onion shed at Leamington'-which, by the way, has been started and is now under the supervision of the Department of Agriculture

was a costly, vote getting, experiment. The onion growers voted strongly-and I trust the Minister of Agriculture will observe the term "strongly1"- against the government candidate, the Right Hon. George P. Graham and the government's proposal to build an onion shed instead of giving them protection on their product. Protection, not an onion shed or onion sheds, is what my constituents desire. I am inspired to try to impress upon the hon. Minister of Agriculture, if it be possible, the faet that he can, by almost a stroke of the pen, preserve an important industry in western Ontario which to-day is not receiving fair play.

Let me make one or two constructive suggestions. First, there should be adequate protection on all vegetables, principally onions, raised in Ontario, or in any other part of Canada, protection equal in every respect to that accorded the United States vegetable raisers, so that the barrier to our vegetables seeking markets would be equalled by the barrier the American growers encounter in trying to reach our market. Second: The development of export market facilities and the methods of handling our vegetables, so that we can dispose of our exportable surplus each year, thereby providing a safety valve for any seasonable surplus that we may have from time to time. As an instance, I would mention that during the winter of 1924-25, sixty-seven car loads of onions were exported to Cuba from Ontario and Vancouver, and forty-two car loads of British Columbia onions to the Orient.

In this connection, I might state that under date of February 16, Mr. G. E. McIntosh,

The Address-Mr. Gott

Fruit Commissioner, received the following wire:

Chatham, Ont., February 16, 1926.

Mr. G. E. McIntosh,

Fruit Commissioner,

Department of Agriculture,

Ottawa Ont.

Wire collect names and addresses several reliable, aggressive exporters onions to Cuba and West Indies market. Heavy importation Spanish onions during past five months have taken place of large amount domestic onions with resulting considerable surplus our onions.

If 20 to 50 cars domestic onions could be exported, a fair market might be provided for remainder onions. About 25 cars freshly regraded onions are available at $1.25 per cwt. f.o.b. Western Ontario points and growers pressing to sell.

' Sgd. Bhcce F. Bradley.

This wire was not despatched by any person animated by political affiliations. It presents the actual condition in western Ontario to-day, as set forth by a man who thinks we should at least be entitled to our own market so long as we do not exploit it to the disadvantage of the general public.

Thousands of farmers in the United States -vegetable raisers, tobacco raisers, and all classes of farmers

would be glad to come to our district if the market for the vegetables they could grow were other than it is at present; and I beseech this government to co-operate with us in this respect in the interests of the people whom I have the honour to represent, before it is too late. The industry is well worth preserving; the farmers of South Essex have hundreds of thousands of dollars invested in -it.

In 1924 Canada produced 31,218 tons of onions. Of that amount Ontario produced 23,844 tons, and the riding I represent produced over one-half of the total production of the whole Dominion. For the period of four months of the year 1925 we exported 9,116 bushels of onions at a value of $7,979, and imported for the fiscal year $401,814. I obtained these figures from the report of the Ottawa Fruit Commissioner, Mr. Fulton. We can produce onions, the best in the world, sufficient for the consumption- of the whole Canadian market, and have thousands of bushels -for export purposes, if this or any other government will only give us a chance to see what actually can be done.

I plead for fairness to all classes. I submit that when we remedy this difference in tariff we Shall at one stroke -put ourselves on the way to improve our transportation, immigration, emigration, agricultural and general business conditions. If we do not raise our tariff to meet that of our closest competitor we shall -be steering straight into disaster.

American potatoes and other vegetables have been permitted to drive Canadian produce from the market. Our home-grown vegetable and fruit stocks are allowed to decay, while the market is supplied from the United States at one-third -the duty at which we can supply their market. The loss to Canadian growers amounts to millions of dollars annually, and the industry is blighted by unnecessary competition. The preservation of our market garden industry means increased buying powers to -the extent of millions of dollars for large sections of Canadian people, to the ultimate benefit of the entire country, while the consumer, as well as the producer, will reap the profit.

I desire, Mr. Speaker, to submit a statement of farm produce imported into the Dominion o-f Canada from the United States for the year 1924, as follows:


Applies dried.. Pears.. .. ,. .. Peaches in cans. Peaches raw.. .



Strawberries.. ..













Other vegetables,



.... $ 775,819

.. .. 56,407.. .. 566,634.. .. 201,630.. .. 403,312.. .. 83,349.. .. 661,443.. .. 785,150303,495.. .. 783.488.. .. 2,508,383.. .. 318,981.. .. 1,144.141.. .. 5,134.061.. .. 33,943.. .. 250,692.. .. 964,055.. .. 451,449.. .. 187,677.. .. 434,548.. .. 1,396,080

bushels 14,120,962 pounds 16,848,439

Total foodstuffs imported, $494,349,000.

In the recent campaign I stood for six points, namely:

1. To reduce our national debt and lessen the burden of taxation by strict economy in every department of government.

2. To stop the alarming tide of emigration by encouraging the development of Canada's great natural resources and give employment to Canadians at home.

3. To adjust the tariff so as to give reasonable and just protection to Canadian farm and garden products, in order that the Canadian farmer and every man who labours may obtain the highest prices for the products of his toil.

4. To develop a sane immigration policy, with the view of building up Canada as a great and prosperous nation within the British Empire.

5. To conserve Canada's raw materials and manufacture them at home, thereby giving

The Address-Mr. Gott

employment to hundreds of thousands who, through the exportation of same in the raw, follow it to the factories in search of employment.

6. To adopt at all times a conciliatory and constructive mode of procedure on matters pertaining to our national welfare; and to represent all the people regardless of colour, creed or political affiliation.

I quote from the Mail and Empire of September 12, 1925:

Australia Booming

On Wave of Prosperity, Sir James Elder Says

Toronto, September 12.-Illuminating figures showing what protection had accomplished in Australia and other parts of the British Empire were imparted yesterday at the exhibition directors' luncheon, at which Sir James Elder, Trade Commissioner for Australia in the United States; Hon. J. F. Cahan, M.P.P., member without portfolio of the cabinet of the Nova Scotia government, and Ben Smith, a member of the British Labour party in the House of Commons, spoke.

Sir James Elder said he was certain that Australia would be an exhibitor at the 1926 exhibition. Unlike Canada, he said, Australia was now riding on the crest of a phenomenal wave of prosperity, and the wheels of industry were spinning as never before, so much so that the people of Australia were fast being relieved of the heavy burdens of taxation. Protection had been the one cause of Australia's wonderful success in the interchange of trade with other countries.

Sir James declared that during the past three years Australia had reduced her war debt by over $110,000,000, while the aggregate Federal debt had been decreased to the extent of $2,000,000,000. Australia had not only reduced her public debt, but the government was seized of the importance of relieving the people of heavy income taxation and four reductions had been made since 1914, the present tax being on the basis of pre-war days, plus 20 per cent and further reductions were contemplated in the very near future.

I have been asked by members on this side of the House where I stand on the question of Maritime rights. I have heard the question very often asked in this chamber: What are Maritime rights? I

quote a reprint from the Montreal Herald:

Halifax Elevators Lie Idle as Bulk of Grain Crop Shipped by Way of the United States.

Not one bushel of the 24,095,814 bushels of Canadian wheat exported to Great Britain this year has arrived at one of empire's most important ports.

I realize from that article what Maritime rights are, and I say to this House that I stand for Maritime rights just as I stand for Alberta coal for Ontario. I stand for Canada for Canadians. I stand for a national fuel policy which, I believe, would be a wise and patriotic policy, one conducive to the exclusion of millions of tons of United States coal annually from Canada and one that would keep at home millions of dollars every year to help to turn the wheels o.f Canadian industry.

Much has been said in this House about precedents. I have heard more precedents mentioned since the opening of this session than in all the rest of my life. Let me quote a living precedent, one which stands out in the world to-day as a beacon-the United States of America. The United States is the richest country in the world. It is the most highly protected country under the sun. Its workmen are the best paid men on earth and its commodities are sold at prices as reasonable as those of any country. Only when Canada adopts measures similar to those adopted by the United States in regard to the tariff, shall we prosper. Protection brings capital investment, industry, employment, wages and competition. Competition brings prices within the reach of the working man and, above all, presents us with the means of preserving the essential of nationhood-our manhood. Protection brings industry and one industry brings another. The protective tariff develops home industries and these industries promote others, giving employment to working men, wages to local families and contentment in the home. They give custom and profit to local business, and the prosperity of the manufacturers and of business concerns generally provides freight for the railways, which again employ more workers. All these combined furnish a better home market to the farmers who are sadly in need of a more extensive outlet for their products.

This is the policy which the Conservative party stand1 for and which will be put into operation at the earliest opportunity after they have come into power. Like 115 other members on this side of the House, I was elected on a protective policy. I represent a progressive constituency and a farming community, and speaking for the farmers of South Essex, whose very existence depends upon protection and whose progress has been very seriously hampered by unfair competition, I stand behind a leader whose policy it will be to promote such conditions as are vital to the welfare of that constituency among others.

There are 116 members on this side who are united behind one leader with one policy and one principle that of a unified Canada. That leader is courageous!, otitspoken, straightforward and honest, and 116 men are pledged to him both in heart and in mind. With confidence they stand behind him ready to assist in the passing of legislation by means of which every section of the country and every citizen of this Dominion will be benefited, regardless of their political affiliations or their standing in their respective communities. That policy is a policy to build up Canada and to elevate the morale of our citizens,

The Address-Mr. Gott

and' that policy will be acceptable, I am sure, to every section of Canada. Our policy is one of adequate protection to all classes, a policy which will be conducive to Dominion-wide prosperity on the farm, in the factory and in the home; and in that policy lies the only solution for the problems of our war and railway debts and the exodus of our boys and girls to the United States. In it lies the solution for the problems also of our present ruinous taxation and the burdens under which the Canadian people are labouring to-day. Our policy offers to this country an aggressive and economical government under stable and fair conditions by means of which we may all achieve prosperity, stimulating immigration, bringing back our people from the United States, expanding our revenue and reducing our taxation. For if we are to prosper as a nation we shall do so not by looking backward and attempting to retrieve the mistakes of the past, but by looking forward and making a gigantic preparation for the things that are to be done.

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February 24, 1926

Mr. E. J. GOTT (South Essex):

Mr. Speaker, when the House rose last evening-

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February 23, 1926


Anything of a Christian origin seems to provoke laughter in this House, Mr. Speaker.

-you to enjoy a bountiful Christmas season, with a flow of yuletide blessings, and bring you peace now and forever, is the earnest wish of your representative in my Christmas message of thanks and good cheer, in which I sincerely extend to all a Merry Christinas and a Bright, and Happy and Prosperous New Year.

Mr. Speaker, the Australian treaty, along with many other issues and reasons, was the cause of Mr. Graham's defeat. He did not purpose, not for one moment, that the Civil Service Commission would function to the disadvantage of his political standing in the riding. In giving a few details in connection with only one of several cases in South Essex where he was dictator, I desire to submit

Having been officially appointed by the Civil Service Commission, before he could be sworn in he was relieved of his appointment through the advice and dictation of Mr. Graham. In other cases, and in not simply a few, Mr. Graham's interference with the Civil Service Commission was as brazen as in this case. These I shall not mention other than to say that in them he showed a defiance of any regulations that might govern the Civil Service Commission. Mr. McCallum is a returned man of excellent standing, fine executive capacity, qualified in every way for the position, and slightly indisposed at times due to war service. I was the recipient of a letter from Mr. McCallum, under date of February 5, in which he states:

Re-Kingsville Customs Appointment

This is a rather complicated affair and quite difficult to explain by letter.

I am forwarding herewith two official documents, the result of marks obtained on the examination, also the appointment, both signed by the secretary of the Civil Service Commission.

14011-81 i

I carried out instructions on appointment, and on presentation of same was informed that my duties would not begin until authorization from Minister of the Department at Ottawa had arrived.

Through some reason, the news of my appointment became known, and our friends here became active, by wire, with the result that although I was appointed on June 30th, headed the examination, served approximately three years in France, was rejected on account of a charge by some political henchmen of this district, but the enclosed letters will explain all I think to your satisfaction.

This appointment did not follow the usual procedure, and instead of going through the commission, came from the department by wire, in due time being passed through the usual channels.

Pressing the commission personally for a reason, also the department through the Windsor G.W.V.A., will enclose herewith the letters which are self-explanatory, the charge against me by the department (manufactured for the instance), and also letters from the C.N. and C.P. Telegraph Companies, whose agent I was here. These letters are from the inspectors who personally checked my office at the time I resigned.

You can easily see what becomes of the charges of the department, against the name of a man who had served his country in the time of need; charges that had not the slightest foundation, nothing more or less than a political dodge from beginning to end.

When we fellows enlisted they did not stop to ask what our politics were.

The defeated representative of South Essex, Mr. Graham, with whom I had several interviews, the first one the day that I had been informed that the appointment was made definitely. Mr. Graham said that the Civil Service Commission was absolutely and entirely supreme. The commission and the department usually met and decided on the appointment, but if the commission made the appointment, recommendations or anything else from the department would take no effect.

I immediately produced the result of my marks, also the .appointment, and said: "In view of the facts already stated by you with these official documents in your hand, how do you account for another mar. receiving the appointment?"

Mr. Graham: "Well, the Customs Department have got busy, Mac."

Mr. McCallum: "You have just finished telling me

that this could not possibly be done."

Mr. Graham: "But, of course, you understand this

is not my department?"

Mr. McCallum: "This may not be in your department, but this is your constituency, and are you aware of the fact that there are hundreds of returned soldiers in South Essex?"

Mr. Graham then promised that he would get in touch with the department, and the Civil Service Commission, and see what could be done.

The next interview I had with Mr. Graham was the day that he was endorsed as Liberal candidate in South Essex.

A fateful day:

He admitted before Lafferty, President of the Windsor G.W.\.A., and others, that according to the evidence produced from Lafferty's files, part of which I herewith enclose, there was no doubt I had been done an injustice, and on arriving at Ottawa he would immediately get in touch with the Minister of Customs and see if he could not have my name cleared of these charges. As usual his actions were conspicuous by their absence.

This was a fine endeavour-quite characteristic of him, though-to try to clear a man.

The Address-Mr. Gott

of a charge which was manufactured by his opponents. What manner of man is he who can so gracefully clear a man of charges of which he was innocent when these were only in the preferred class and manufactured for the occasion?

Now, Mr. Speaker, I hold in my hand the documents in connection with this case, and they show an absolute disregard of the Civil Service Commission as instituted by my worthy opponent, the Right Hon. George P. Graham, and his former colleagues. I have first the time table calling attention to the examination to qualify for permanent appointment to the position of sub-collector of customs and excise at Kingsville, Ontario:

Time Table

Examination to qualify for permanent appointment to the position of sub-collector of customs and excise, at Kingsville, Ontario.

Date: May 29, 1925.

Subjects Time

General questions 9.00 a.m.-3 hours

Place of examination:

Enquire A. W. Massey, Esq., B.A.,

Principal, High School, Kingsville, Ontario.

Civil Service Commission Examination Branch May 22, 1925.

Next I have the instructions issued by the Civil Service Commission, all of which were lived up to. Then I have the result of the examination:

Statement of marks obtained by candidate 137 at an examination held on May 29, 1925, in order to qualify for permanent appointment as sub-collector Department of Customs and Excise, at Kingsville, Ontario.

Now taking the different subjects: on general questions the candidate received 72 marks out a maximum of 100. On education and experience he received 85. In the oral examination he received 88, or a percentage of 80.7. He was pronounced to have passed the examination successfully and to have ranked first.

Under date of June 25 I have his official appointment by order of the Civil Service Commission as received by Mr. McCallum in Kingsville on June 26, which says:

Civil Service Commission of Canada Notification of Report for Duty

Name-Charles R. McCallum.

Address-Kingsville, Ontario.

Department-Customs and Excise.

Branch-Kingsville, Ontario.

Title of position-Sub-collector of Customs and Excise, outport, Kingsville, Ontario.

Duties-As specified in the official definition, and such other related work as may be required.

You have been selected for appointment on probation as shown above, subject to your ability to furnish the commission with satisfactory evidence as

to your citizenship, age, physical condition, character and habits. Report for duty at the time and place indicated below, and present this notice to the officer named. Also please note the extracts from the law quoted before.

Place to report-Amherstburg, Ontario.

Person to whom to report-By letter to the Collector of Customs and Excise.

Date to report-Immediately.

The appointment was closed. A few days later Mr. McCallum learned that another appointment had been made. He went to Amherstburg and presented himself to the Collector of Customs to be sworn in, but that official did not have any authorization from the department to do so, consequently he could not swear him in. A few days later, under date of June 13, Mr. McCallum wired to the Civil Service Commission, and they wrote to him under date July 16, 1925, as follows:

Dear Sir:

In reply to your telegram of the 13th inst. I am instructed to inform you that the Deputy Minister of Customs and Excise has notified the commission that your services will not be acceptable to that department, and the commission has therefore made another assignment to the position of sub-collector of Customs and Excise in the person of Mr. Allan Dorland Peareall, who qualified for permanent appointment at the same time as yourself. Mr. Pearsall did not serve overseas during the late war, but you were the only successful candidate who did so. Mr. Pearsall was regularly assigned to this position on the 3rd instant.

Yours truly,

C. H. Bland,

Assistant Secretary.

The Great War Veterans' Association in Windsor pressing the Civil Service Commission for an explanation, the latter communicated with the Customs department, which department, under date of August I, wrote to the Secretary of the Civil Service Commission as follows:

I am in receipt of your letters of the 21st and 27th ultimo respecting the appointment of a customs excise examiner at Kingsville, Ontario, and the rejection of Mr. McCallum one of the candidates.

You are advised in reply that it was reported to the department that Mr. McCallum was discharged from the service of the Canadian Pacific Telegraph Company for cause, and the department is therefore not prepared to recommend his appointment to a position in its service.

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

R. R. Farrow,

Deputy Minister.

Naturally they had to find some excuse. I may say that the G.W.V.A. of Windsor took the matter up on behalf of Mr. McCallum and have proved -that the charges were baseless and without the slightest foundation. I present a letter from the Canadian National Telegraphs sent to Mr. L. J. Lafferty, Pres-

The Address-Mr. Gott

ident of the Great War Veterans' Association, Windsor, Ontario, under date August 15. 1925:

Dear Sir: Further to my letter of recent date in

connection with former agent C. R. McCallum.

Kindly be advised that Mr. McCallum was not discharged from the service but resigned of his own free will, not wishing to assume further responsibility as he was not acquainted with the wire work.

Under the circumstances consider he acted very wisely as our system is quite complicated which made him dependent for information from his operator.

Yours truly,

G. R. Kerby, Inspector.

I have a further letter to Mr. McCallum from the Canadian Pacific Railway Company under date of London, Ontario, September 2, 1925, as follows

Dear Sir : With regard to your inquiry I am glad

to confirm the fact that you resigned the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's telegraph agency at Kingsville of your own free will, and with the object of securing a more lucrative position.

Wishing you future success.

P. G. Galbraith, Telegraph Inspector.

Now it is shown definitely, Mr. Speaker, that the ruling of the commission was overridden by Mr. Graham. It is very easy to make up reports about men. If I were guilty of the things that were said about me in the campaign, some of which have evidently

been carried to Ottawa, I would not be worthy of a seat in this honourable body. McCallum was persecuted for political purposes, and for political purposes only, and I think it is the duty of the Civil Service Commission, and also of the Department of Customs and Excise, if they prize honour and virtue in their operations, to rectify the error so grossly made in the heat of a political contest. I trust the Department of Customs and Excise and the Civil Service Commission will note my remarks and take' immediate steps to correct the error to the committing of which they contributed thereby preventing the proper functioning of their own express regulations.

Now, Mr. Speaker, I was not elected to parliament on promises. I told the electors of South Essex that if I had to tell one lie, or make one promise, or purchase one vote, I had no desire to sit in the House of Commons. I said that the only promise I could conscientiously make was that if I were elected I would put forth my best endeavours at all times in the interests of my constituents regardless of colour, creed, or political affiliations; for I believe that a person who has one spark of prejudice in his make-up has no right to aspire to the highest honours within

the gift of the people. We have had many promises in our riding from public men in the past. My worthy opponent, Mr. Graham, in the 1921 campaign, promised the onion and early vegetable growers of Leamington and Mersea township protection on their products. Then when a delegation of fanners waited on Mr. Fielding and Mr. Graham at the Prince Edward hotel in Windsor on the 22nd May, Mr. Fielding turned to Mr. Graham and said, "George that is not our policy". I say to this House and I say to the people of this country at large that this is our policy, and when our party comes into power, whenever that may be, legislation will be enactedwhereby the necessary tariff can be implemented, and it will not be necessary for a delegation to go to see my leader or the

representative of their constituency, if I am sitting member.

I have no apologies to make for the defeat of my worthy opponent. I classed him in the campaign, as I do now as the leading man in the ranks of the Liberal party in the whole Dominion of Canada. I think he stood head and shoulders over the Prime Minister, not only in stature but in

capacity and ability, a man worthy of any man's steel, a good all round fellow, with sportsman-like qualities. When he was defeated he wanted to retire. Why should he not do so? I have been connected all my life with those lines of sport by means of which we put on the map our county and the town in which I was born and raised and in which I live-Amherstburg, Ontario. In other words, we have known how to be good winners and good losers. We organized and instituted an amateur county league system of baseball and we tried to instil into our boys a realization of the fact that a dishonest victory was less to be prized than an honourable defeat. Had the Right Hon. Mackenzie King been a member of our league he would have had the same teaching and the people from coast to coast in Canada to-day would not be saying that Mackenzie King was not even a good sport.

My worthy opponent possessed sportsmanlike qualities. In addition to that he was straightforward and outspoken, especially when I was not present. He is the possessor of a genial disposition; his character is unsullied; and on the whole he has the qualities which make him a lovable chap-the term I believe which has been applied to him by the hon. member for Southeast Grey (Miss Mac-phail). Mr. Graham was a part of the sporting fraternity in our county, but he was

The Address-Mr. Gott

in the county so little that he grew away from the people and they grew away from him. If I am any judge, his absence from this House is conspicuous. I had the unique experience of meeting a lady who was a personal friend both of the Minister of Railways and of the Minister of National Defence (Mr. Macdonald) and she whined because I had defeated Mr. Graham and pined that it was not the Minister of National Defence who had been defeated.

Now I desire to say a word or two about the part of the country I come from, the constituency I have the honour to represent, and the town of my birth. I was born in the town of Amherstburg, Ontario, the oldest town in Canada, how many years ago I shall not say unless requested. Amherstburg is an historic place, being situated eighteen miles south of Detroit, at the foot of the Detroit river where the river enters into lake Erie. It was known over a century ago, in the war of 1812, as Fort Malden, and the block house used by the Canadian soldiers in that war still stands on Bois Blanc island. The very trenches used by the Canadian artillery to repulse the attack of the Americans in that war still hold their grassy mounds at the north end of the town, and in the town there has been preserved on the property now owned by Mr. John Fraser the very stone from which Tecumseh, the great Indian chief, made his last address to his soldiers before he took the Indian trail north of the town on his retreat to Moraviantown, where he was slain. Being historic we still maintain traditions in some sense, for we have to-day a mayor occupying the red chair for the sixteenth year. He is not an old man and may be good for half a century yet, in which event he may occupy that office until the Master calls.

We produce in the town of Amherstburg soda ash; we have the only alkali manufacturing establishment in Canada. We have a 15,000,000 plant which employs 300 men, known as the Brunner Mond Canada, Limited. The employees of this firm are one happy and contented family of devoted wage earners. The plant was constructed during the war and when ready to operate, the government of Sir Robert Borden, with Sir Thomas White as Finance minister, had not placed a tariff on soda ash as promised and 600 men who were then engaged in construction were laid off. Soon a tariff of 124 per cent was placed on soda ash; the men resumed work and that factory has operated from then until now. It is the bulwark of sustenance for scores of homes in the community, and offers the sur-

IMr. Gott.]

rounding farmers a ready market for all produce.

Just recently officials of the Brunner Mond went into eastern Canada to ascertain why certain institutions were not using Brunner Mond products, and the only reason given was that the Michigan Alkali people were underselling our Canadian firm by the smallest kind of margin, due to the fact that the Michigan firm turns out ten tons to every ton manufactured by the Brunner Mond. I am not asking for or suggesting, nor has the Brunner Mond Company done so, a raise in tariff, which would be conducive in my humble opinion to materially increasing their output, giving employment to more men and supplying the Canadian market exclusively with Canadian products, manufactured in Canada, the output of Canadian brain and labour; but what the Brunner Mond Company needs is protection on glass.

The people of Amherstburg are interested in the manufacture of soda ash, which is an indispensable product in the manufacture of glass. Glass contains thirty per cent soda ash. Canadian glass factories are unable to withstand the importation of American glass at a low duty, and are closing, or rather have closed their doors, for the lack of profitable business. Across the river two huge factories employ thousands of men manufacturing glass that is shipped to us for consumption, while our own factories employ but a few men because our government allows the market for its product to be choked by the product of our competitors.

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February 23, 1926


I have noticed a disposition on the part of Jion. members to my left to interfere with younger members who are making their first speeches. The hon. member who spoke before me was not interrupted; I have not yet interrupted a speaker in this House, and if my hon. friend desires an answer to any question I shall be willing tomorrow to sit down with him and go into the question in an intelligent manner.

This was one of the issues-one of the many issues-that was discussed in Amherstburg during the campaign. Mr. Graham carried the town of Amherstibuirg, a small town of less than 3,000 souls, in 1921 by a majority of 325. But after the visit of Mr. Duncan Marshall to Amherstburg the town flopped to the tune of 295 the other way. I do not know whether or no-t the term "flopped" is unparliamentary. Mr. Marshall sought to impress

The Address-Mr. Gott

upon the people that the woollen factories of Canada were working night and day, whereas the official report that had the day before been placed in the hands of residents of the town disclosed the fact that twelve woollen factories had closed their doors in Canada during 1924; that hundreds of men had been thrown out of work due to their failure to operate, and that the twelve failures had resulted in a loss to the operators of $1,463,000, whereas others failed without actually going into liquidation and the woollen business of Canada was not in the healthy state in which Mr. Marshall said it was.

My first remark in connection with the railways of this country is that if any one of the 245 members of this parliament is not vitally interested and concerned in the government-owned system, he is not a loyal Canadian. During the campaign I sent out a circular letter dealing exclusively with railways, asking for an understanding on the question, and to-day I say to the nation at large: Let us understand one another on the railway question. At various times I have criticized the waste, the useless expenditures, the pledging of credit and the promise of railway lines where the traffic would not justify extensions. To-day I am opposed to the building of t'he Hudson Bay railway or any other line while our backs are breaking with a railway debt of $2,056,181,517.70, with the 1925 addition still to be made. It is too late in public life in Canada to place the blame on any party or person. It is not a political question; it is a national problem, the biggest problem facing the Canadian people to-day, and we must grapple with it in a genuine business-like manner or we shall be heading straight towards national disaster. The Conservatives blame the Liberals; the Liberals blame the Conservatives. In one of the thirty-one paragraphs of that circular letter I placed the blame on the shoulders of the Right Hon. George P. Graham, who, when he was Minister of Railways and1 Canals in the Laurier government, overbuilt this country with railways in anticipation of an immediate influx of immigrants swelling our population, so that to-day we have the railways capable of handling the population but unfortunately we have not the population. I hold in my hand the circular letter to which I refer. It comprises thirty-one paragraphs, but I am going to read just this one:

The Hon. George P. Graham is one of those rare optimists that the returning annual deficit cannot for a moment disturb. You will recall, many of you, that he was preaching optimism when the Canadian Northern lines were being built and the Grand Trunk Pacific was under construction. He has that same optimism. He boasted of it and he ridiculed those

business men who counselled caution in those enormous expenditures. The Grand Trunk Pacific, you must recall, was built in part during Mr. Graham's earlier years as Minister of Railways and Canals, under the old Laurier administration. Even in those days Mr. Graham was a successful builder of deficits with the old Intercolonial railroad which ran from Montreal to Halifax. In those days, however, he had not attained the success that he now has achieved as a deficit builder. Three or four million dollars of a deficit per year was his crowning achievement. To-day, he never bats an eyelash with a deficit of $35,000,000 or $40,000,000. And even this amount is modest for there have been expenditures incurred for the Canadian National lines that have not been charged to the railroads, but that are charged to the government as general expenditures.

Still, this deficit builder has been until Saturday hanging on to the reins of office as Minister of Railways after having been swamped in South Essex. The people said: We want no more of your administration; and the voice of our section of the Dominion of Canada spoke very audibly. Four years ago the three seats in this section were held by three cabinet ministers by enormous majorities, namely, the Right Hon. George P. Graham, the Hon. James Murdock and the late Hon. W. C. Kennedy. Since then another seat has been added, and it must be painful- yes, it must even be mournful to the officeholding government, to discern on this side of the House four Conservatives, all with proud majorities. Strange as it may seem, with full faith and confidence they sent an Englishman, a Frenchman, a Scotchman and an Irishman to conduct their business in this parliament. I might add that so far the Irishman has not been out of bounds except on one occasion, and that owing to the fact that he has been seated in this House between two Scotchmen. I took occasion to turn to one of the Scotchmen and I asked him if he knew the difference between a Scotchman and a cocoanut. He advised me that he did not, and I told him that he could get a drink out of a cocoanut. I turned to the Scotchman on my left and I asked him if he knew the difference between a Scotchman and a canoe. He told me that he did not, and I had to tell him that a canoe tipped-sometimes.

A great deal has been said about keeping the railroads out of politics and I believe even this House could agree unanimously on that. There are in my riding five newspapers, three Liberal and two Independent, supposedly and during the campaign they carried advertisements headed: "Keeps the railways out of politics." Naturally I thought some' interested citizen had been prompted by independent motives to take the initiative and to write the article; but when I was speaking to the owner of one of the news-

sor-and this is the only port of entry I use as an illustration because it is a stone's throw from my riding-there were admitted to Canada-and they were not all Canadians-by way of ferry boat 47, by way of trains 26, or a total of 73. When we make the comparison that I am about to place before the House showing the absolute disparity that exists, those who are responsible for the policy that causes it say we are crying blue ruin, that we are calamity howlers, pessimists. I am not a calamity howler, nor am I a pessimist. I am just optimistic enough to think that a roadster can carry six passengers if they are well enough acquainted. Hence when I tell you, Sir, that for the first fifteen days of this year there were regularly admitted at Detroit from the Dominion 1,375 permanent residents-and the American officers think they do well if they get two out of three- the disparity is patent. During the same period we lost at the port of Windsor emigrants over immigrants 1,302 citizens that there are records of, and how many more crossed over never will be known. But those who assert that our boys are returning in large numbers know little, yea, very little of which they speak. It is not a pleasure for me to cite these conditions; it is rather painful. I think they are disgraceful. Let me quote a paragraph from the Border Cities Star of January 2, 1926:

Detroit Is Mecca For Canadians

The exodus of Canadians to the United States continues with the new year, according to a report by H. F. Hawley, United States consul at Windsor. Applications by bona fide Canadian citizens for legal entry into the United States are piling up rapidly, the consul said. That appointments with prospective immigrants have provided for every minute of his staff's time until February 26. The majority of those who propose departure from Canada by way of Windsor desire to settle in Detroit or vicinity, according to the records.

Now, Mr. Speaker, can you imagine what this means to Canada, losing the flower of her population? And yet we have a government in power that does not even know this is taking place! As to how many Canadians we will lose for the first quarter of 1928 from the port of Windsor -alone no person can make even a conservative estimate. Those who left during the first fifteen days of January paid $13,750 to get passports, and the head tax aggregated $11,000 or a total expenditure of approximately, $24,750 of good Canadian rn-oney for the mere purpose of our fellow countrymen entering the States to reside there permanently. This is assisting to solve unemployment in Canada! I admit it, Mr. Speaker. It is helping as well our exports. All of these people are heads of

families, and their dependents will follow later. Taking their furniture and so forth, their settlers' effects, and averaging them at $500 each, we are losing in wealth $687,500-a mere trifle. I claim this is the greatest challenge to any government or even a professed government that has ever -been made. I ask what is being done t-o meet it.

The hon. member for Queens (Mr. Jenkins) recently said:

I have noticed in the speeches that have already been delivered in this debate that not a great deal has been said by hon. members regarding the particular constituencies they represent.

I did not regard his own statements as being very specific with respect to his constituency. I have the honour, Mr. Speaker, to represent the most southerly section of Canada. I have the honour too of representing Jack Miner, the leading bird naturalist of the world-also Jack Miner's birds. Jack Miner is a good Christian soul, kind hearted and with a very charitable disposition. Through his sanctuary he protects annually more birds than all the paid officials of all the governments of Canada combined.

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