I shall be glad to. The international fundamental education centres at Patzcuaro, Mexico and Sirs el Laiyana, Egypt, deal with the general form of education, education in the broad sense of the term. The centre at Patzcuaro, Mexico, alone takes care of the whole of Latin America, while the one at Sirs el Laiyana, Egypt, serves not only the Egyptian area but the whole of the Middle East. The population of those areas of the world are taught at those two centres, for example, how to maintain health; how to use their natural resources to best advantage in order to raise their standard of living; how to develop their agricultural resources, etc. In a broad sense that is what we mean by fundamental education.
Under the heading of natural science, the conference agreed that arid zone research should be accelerated. A substantial increase was voted in the budget for this activity. Surveys of the arid zones in Latin America, the Middle East and south Asia will be examined by committees of experts in an effort to co-ordinate research on this subject.
The proposed campaign against cancer was one of the most controversial items in the entire UNESCO program. It was first approved, then rejected, and finally accepted under the new title of "basic research on cellular growth."
The conference expressed keen interest in the work of the international council of scientific unions. A study conference on science teaching will be held in south Asia in 1955.
Subventions to the council of international organizations of medical sciences, to the union of international engineering associations, to the general assembly of the international union of biochemistry and to the international geophysical year were approved.
Under the heading of social sciences, it was decided that the development of social science teaching will be encouraged, with particular attention being given to direct aid to member states and the teaching of economics at universities.
The conference decided to intensify its work in the field of human rights and minorities, and to initiate a world-wide campaign to eradicate racial discrimination. Subventions were granted also to eight international social science organizations or institutions.
Under the heading of cultural activity, the conference authorized an analysis of the use of radio and television in cultural programs and a study of traditional cultures in southeast Asian communities which are undergoing rapid technological changes.
It authorized also an inquiry into the teaching of the humanities. Comparative studies of methods used in education through arts and crafts in industrial and rural areas will be conducted in Sweden, Germany and the U.S.S.R.
Underdeveloped countries that have requested assistance will be aided in establishing libraries and archives, the education of librarians and the microfilming of library or archival materials. During 1955 a seminar on public library development will be held in India, and a regional conference on the exchange of publications will be held in Latin America. The aid to member states such as Burma, India and Pakistan, for example in the development of museums, was approved and assistance was authorized to the international council of museums for the international exchange of exhibitions.
The conference recommended maintenance of the necessary services for the implementation of the universal copyright convention as well as for the protection of cultural property
in the event of armed conflicts. Subventions to 11 international cultural organizations were approved.
Under the heading of mass communication, such as the press, radio, television, the continuation of all UNESCO's activities for the promotion of international understanding was authorized. Continued efforts to procure support for proposed international agreements on the free flow of information were urged, and the preparation of a recommendation to member states on the free movement of persons was authorized. A substantial appropriation was provided for expert missions and fellowships. Under the heading of exchange of persons, priority will be given to the underdeveloped countries in the awarding of fellowships.
Finally, Mr. Speaker, under the heading of general resolutions; the conference considered the development of national commissions to be one of the most important questions on the agenda. A study of the structure and methods of work of existing commissions, the resources at their disposal, and the difficulties they were encountering was authorized. All member states were urged to improve the operation of their national commissions.
At this point may I recall, Mr. Speaker, that in chapter 25 of the report of the royal commission on the arts, letters and sciences which was tabled in this house in June, 1951, the commission summarized certain disabilities which, in its view, seriously handicapped arts and letters in Canada. One of the gaps in our national equipment in relation to the arts, letters and social sciences which the royal commission cited was the following, and I quote from pages 372 and 373 of the report:
Although Canada is a member of the United Nations educational, scientific and cultural organization, there is not yet established in Canada any form of national commission for UNESCO; an undertaking to create such a commission or an equivalent forms part of the UNESCO constitution, which Canada has accepted.
Canada has been a member of UNESCO since 1946, and has not yet established a national commission such as that prescribed by the UNESCO constitution and recommended by the royal commission. It will be recalled that the royal commission recommended the creation of a council for the arts, letters and sciences which, together with other varied and complex duties, would act as a national commission for UNESCO. Many of the duties of the proposed Canada Council would be concerned precisely with those matters of greatest concern to UNESCO, so that by the creation of a single body wasteful duplication would be avoided.
The Address-Mr. Arsenault
It seems obvious that the circumstances and considerations which led the royal commission to make this recommendation are still valid. As at September 1952, out of the 65 member states of UNESCO only three countries in addition to Canada had not established national commissions. They were Arabia, Korea, and Czechoslovakia. So long as we do not have some kind of national body, organized for the purpose to which I have just referred, we shall be failing in our undertaking to UNESCO, and we shall be taking only a very inadequate part in the UNESCO programs.
Topic: SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
Subtopic: CONTINUATION OF DEBATE ON ADDRESS IN REPLY