September 16, 1968

?

Some hon. Members:

Hear, hear.

Topic:   SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
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LIB

Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Prime Minister)

Liberal

Mr. Trudeau:

This problem, however, is one which goes back into our history and which is made more acute by our geography. Even in a unitary state with unlimited funds and manpower we could not eradicate it in a short period. But if we are to live up to the expectations of the Canadian people we must make the best use of available techniques and devise new and better ones to deal with this cruel and costly blemish on our increasingly wealthy society.

I have often mentioned the responsibility of the more affluent segments of our society toward the less privileged ones. The majority of us have already satisfied our right to a minimum standard of satisfactory living. It is those who have not who need government help.

In order to focus programs on those who need them we must define, with as much clarity as possible, the essential components of a minimum standard for satisfactory living-not a subsistence standard but one which allows for dignity and decency. Defining the components of such a standard is a tremendously complex task. Yet, Mr. Speaker, it is something which must be done if we are to fashion the tools with which to measure, with some precision, social investments. I

The development of more accurate tools of measurement is one of the first tasks which confronts a government determined to improve the effectiveness of its social programs.

Meanwhile, poverty cannot wait. Many of our people need help now. Most Canadians are unaware of the scope and scale of the programs at present available in this field. A recent index lists 159 of them. This is our common legacy from previous parliaments. They range from manpower retraining programs to student loans. In 1966-67 income security payments and health and welfare services cost Canadian taxpayers $5.4 billion. We have recognized that these measures, often devised on an ad hoc basis and never properly co-ordinated, are no longer adequate to deal with our current problems.

As a first step towards better co-ordination-and here again we did not wait for the report of the economic council to discover this-we have consolidated all our regional development programs into a single department. For several months the government has been carrying out an over-all assessment of its social security programs. The conclusions reached will enable the cabinet to consider alternative methods of ensuring that our diverse efforts in this field are concentrated in the areas of greatest need.

While poverty is a condition that exists in all parts of Canada there are particular aspects of the problem of underdevelopment and underemployment that relate to certain regions. While there are local exceptions it is broadly true that those areas of Canada east of a line at about Trois-Rivieres have not shared in economic growth and development to the same extent as areas west of that line. The Atlantic provinces are deeply concerned by this problem and, indeed, at the constitutional conference of last February the premier of Nova Scotia stressed that the reduction of regional disparities must be one of the objectives of a healthy confederation for the future. This government fully shares that view, and it is for that reason that we made a matter of priority the consolidation of all regional development programs into a single department.

Substantial progress has been made since the government took office on the governmental reorganization that is necessary to achieve these and other objectives that I announced on July 5. Since that time 12 special task forces have been at work sorting out all the details of organization, personnel and

September 16, 1968 COMMONS

administration that are involved in these changes of function. Legal provision has been made, in so far as it is possible, under the Public Service Re-arrangement and Transfer of Duties Act, and the new departments are operating in fact although they cannot be fully organized and cannot exist in name until legislation is passed by parliament. That legislation will be ready for parliamentary consideration just as soon as it can be reached in the program of work that I announced on September 12.

No government concerned about either the economic or the human development and future of this country can fail to be closely interested in the northern parts of Canada where so much development is still to be achieved and of which we hope so much. That is why I thought it right that my first major trip in Canada after becoming Prime Minister should be to the Yukon and the Northwest Territories. It was not my first trip to the far north but it was by far the most comprehensive. Like all who have travelled there I was overwhelmed by its vastness, impressed by the beauty of many areas, concerned by the human problems of many of its people, and inspired by the prospect of what I feel sure we can achieve.

A great deal has been accomplished in bringing education, vocational training and better housing to the Indians, the Eskimos and others resident in the north, but much remains to be done. The welfare of these people must be a major and active concern of the government, and a vitally important part of that concern must manifest itself in our efforts to stimulate the economic development on which future employment and prosperity will depend.

It was for this reason that the government, under the initiative of the former minister of Indian affairs and northern development, entered into participation with Panarctic Oils Limited for a major oil exploration program in the Queen Elizabeth Islands. This was the first year of that program and already it is ahead of its initial plans. More than 600 miles of seismic work has been done and more than 1,000 miles will be finished by the end of the year. The first drilling, based on the results of the seismic work, is planned for March, 1969.

In the course of my trip it was brought home to me that there is another aspect to the human problem in the north, an aspect other 29180-6

DEBATES 69

The Address-Mr. Trudeau than that relating to economics and development. It is the problem of isolation, the product of enormous distances and sparse population. There are many problems of life in the north that we cannot overcome but this is one we can overcome, not just in the far north but in the remoter portions of the provinces. The sense of isolation can be reduced and the possibility of participation in Canadian life enormously increased by better communications. That is why the government is going ahead actively with the development of satellite communications for this country.

Topic:   SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
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?

Some hon. Members:

Hear, hear.

Topic:   SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
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LIB

Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Prime Minister)

Liberal

Mr. Trudeau:

If Canada were to limit itself to microwave networks and other means of surface communications it would be almost impossible to cover our remote areas. By use of satellites distance can be obliterated. We can bring television to all parts of the country not simply for recreation and entertainment, although these are important in remote areas, but to inform all our people on everything of concern to them in the world and the nation. Since the publication of the white paper on "A Domestic Satellite Communication System for Canada," a publication which came out last April, the government has had a special task force at work on planning a corporation to operate such a system. Study is well advanced on the problems of design and launching the necessary satellites, and legislation to provide the legal basis for action will be ready for introduction in this session of parliament.

Just as the establishment of effective transportation helped to build Canada in the 19th and 20 centuries, the establishment of rapid and effective communications in the future will help to keep it together. The new department of communications will, I hope, help to speed up the growth of effective and up to date communication links everywhere and at the same time provide a measure of regulation and vigilance over developments which can drastically affect the life of every Canadian.

Development in a particular region promotes the general well-being of Canada. For example, in British Columbia we see a continuation of activity which, though regional, has a profound impact on the totality of our country. The expansion of our trade with Japan, which has doubled in five years to approximately $600 million in exports and $300 million in imports, makes Japan our third largest trading partner and emphasizes

September 16, 1968

The Address-Mr. Trudeau the importance to Canada of our Pacific trade. The growth in this trade and in particular the large new coal contracts with Japan require the development of such enterprises as the Roberts Bank ocean shipping terminal on which the federal government will spend $6 million to develop the waterfront installation while the provincial government will develop supporting facilities. Also associated with this development of Vancouver as the Pacific metropolis of our country is the intensive renovation by the federal government at a cost of $32 million of the Vancouver international airport which will improve our access to the Far East and also enhance our national air transportation networks.

[DOT] (5:20 p.m.)

The federal government has also recognized the national importance of the Fraser river and the national consequences of the severe floods which have taken place and could occur on that river. Through a joint program of $40 million, the federal government will provide $18 million with the remainder being provided in British Columbia to carry out a major diking and flood control program on the Fraser.

The long strike of the grain handlers at the lakehead has now been settled, thanks in large part to the efforts of the Minister of Labour (Mr. Mackasey), and western grain will again be moving in substantial volume through the lakehead to the millers and consumers in Canada and abroad.

However, the western wheat economy still has its problems with which we are very much concerned. The world wheat market is currently characterized by an excess of supplies over effective demand. Canadian wheat production from the current crop cannot be accurately estimated. Weather conditions have recently shown a marked improvement and the crop will probably be in the range of 550 million to 600 million bushels. Both the government and the wheat board are determined to maintain Canada's share of the world wheat market. The objective is to secure 25 per cent or better of the world wheat trade, or 1.3 billion bushels of wheat exports, in the next three years. The government will give the necessary support to the board's selling operations. This will include extension of credit arrangements and continuation of a high level of wheat and flour content in Canada's food aid program.

The Economic Council of Canada has dealt in its last review with the question of productivity in agriculture, including particularly the yield per acre achieved by Canadian wheat growers. We have just announced that preparations are under way for setting up a national grains council in order to mobilize more effectively the energies, knowledge and efforts of all segments of the grain industry to assist in every way in achieving our objectives with respect to the grain trade.

As hon. members are aware, the international grains arrangement entered into force on July 1. The first months of its operation have revealed certain problems in the pricing area. A meeting of major wheat exporters opens tomorrow in Canberra where governments particularly involved will have an opportunity to consider the whole question of wheat pricing. The Canadian delegation is headed by the deputy minister of trade and commerce and includes the chief commissioner of the Canadian Wheat Board. In early October there will be a meeting of the prices review committee of the International Wheat Council.

The Canadian government will be making every effort to see that these international arrangements work successfully and that we attain our over-all export targets while being prepared, at the same time, for more fundamental re-examination of the wheat economy. One specific step which the government is taking is to introduce legislation to amend the Prairie Grain Advance Payments Act. This will make it possible to double the advance payment on farm stored grains.

There is another even more important priority with which the government and parliament will have to deal during the next few years, Mr. Speaker: the extension and the protection of the linguistic rights of all Canadians. Noticeable progress has been made these past months in the extension of linguistic rights in most parts of the country. One of the successes of the constitutional conference last February was the agreement reached by all participants to declare that the rights of French-speaking Canadians in the other provinces should, in all justice, be the same as those of English-speaking Canadians in the province of Quebec. The same federal-provincial conference also approved the appointment of a special committee of representatives of the federal and provincial governments to study the report of the royal commission on bilingualism and biculturalism

September 16, 1968

71'

and to seek together ways of implementing its recommendations.

These decisions are important, Mr. Speaker, but constitutional protection is even more important. Canadians are not only entitled to a just and fair administrative and governmental policy in all parts of the country, but the basic law of the land, the constitution of the country, must guarantee that they and their children will, in this respect, receive a fair and just treatment.

We expressed our disappointment, last February, concerning the attitude of some of the provinces which refused to come to an agreement with regard to a constitutional guarantee of linguistic rights. The federal government, for its part, decided that French and English must have absolute equality in all parliamentary and federal institutions.

For several years, the government has administered an extensive program for the development of bilinguism in the civil service and some 7,000 public servants have attended various language courses which we have made available at public expense.

In addition, as we indicated in the Speech from the Throne, the government has prepared a bill on the official languages based on the recommendations of the royal commission on bilingualism and biculturalism. The bill will be introduced at an early date during this session and will put forward the principles governing the use of the official languages as far as the federal government is concerned.

For example, the plan will guarantee that in the different parts of Canada where the minorities using one of the official languages are large enough, the public may obtain in the official language of their choice, some services from all departments, agencies and other federal institutions.

There has also been some progress from the linguistic point of view in several provinces. A year ago, Quebec was the only province where the right to speak in either French or English in the legislature was formally recognized. From now on, the same will apply in the four Atlantic provinces and the two central provinces.

Some substantial progress has also been realized in the field of education. Now, for the first time, in the ten provinces, the use of the official language of the minority as language of instruction in schools is recognized in various degrees. This is important progress towards linguistic equality, Mr. Speaker. But

29180-6J

The Address-Mr. Trudeau it would be tragic if, at the present time, disputes concerning the use of an official language in a province would mean the end of linguistic rights extended to people in other provinces.

The province of Quebec has, for generations, and more than any other province, assured linguistic equality to its Englishspeaking minority. I am sure that the great majority of French-speaking Canadians wish this equal treatment to continue.

[DOT] (5:30 p.m.)

English speaking Canadians must not allow a single incident to cause them to forget the basic principle that linguistic equality requires all provinces to recognize the right of parents to have their children educated in the official language of their choice. Despite recent developments we are far short of that goal. It will not be sufficient for government leaders or public bodies to declare themselves in favour of bilingualism or even to pass legislation on the subject. Facilities for education and public administration in both languages must be made available in practice. Governments must be prepared to spend the necessary funds and to insist on co-operation at all levels of the civil service. Until there are schools teaching in each language and government services operating in each language in every region where the composition of the population justifies it, our work will not be complete.

I spoke about this requirement for a strong and united Canada before I was chosen leader of my party, and our party continued to speak of it in all parts of the country during the election campaign. The evident enthusiasm of Canadians shows their agreement that a properly functioning bilingual state ranks high among our national objectives. As a government and as Canadians, we must accept nothing less.

I might add, Mr. Speaker, that until such practical things are done, we ought not to be surprised that linguistic minorities in Quebec or in other provinces look for support outside of their provincial governments or even the federal government, so that such pious intentions, even the legislation, may be put into practice.

I would be the last one to blame those minorities, especially French-speaking minorities which, for many decades, have had

72 COMMONS

The Address-Mr. Trudeau to face declarations of intent and quite often could not count on any agency to which they could appeal effectively. However, at the time when the whole of Canada gives serious, genuine and substantial indications that the country is ready to recognize a bilingual Canada, I urge them once more to keep on developing and making their needs known, and not to retreat, not to get discouraged.

As I stand in my place, Mr. Speaker, I occupy two roles: the one as a member of the present government, the other as a member of parliament. The first of these roles is dependent upon the second. The greater honour, the greater responsibility flows from my membership in this house. It is an honour and a responsibility that we all share. We sit here as representatives of the people of Canada. We do so with pride, pride in this historic institution of parliament, pride in the democratic process which brought us here, and pride in the techniques which have evolved to convert the needs and wishes of society into legislative practice.

But our pride must not blind us to the fact that at this very moment thoughtful questions are being posed in this and many other western countries as to whether our systems of government have outlived their effectiveness, whether new approaches and new institutions are necessary in order to preserve and enhance the human values which our society prizes. We dare not remain immune from these questions or these criticisms.

It would be easy indeed for us in this house to ignore the discontent expressed in some quarters of Canada, particularly from the young, that the institutions of government are not reflective of the demands of 1968. It would be easy to do so, but it would be wrong. There is abroad in Canada and elsewhere a spreading concern that the traditional techniques of governments are incapable of responding adequately and in time to the changing needs of society. This concern we ignore at our peril. We ignore at our peril as well the accumulating evidence that governments in the past have all too often responded to the symptoms of social unrest rather than to the root causes, that they have done so because their distance from the people has filtered out any direct involvement with the daily problems of the individual. We know from our own experience as parliamentarians that from time to time we sense frustration in our seeming inability to contribute to this

DEBATES September 16, 1968

house fully of the energies and talents which we have brought here with us.

This criticism, this evidence, provides a challenge not just to the government but to parliament. We are given an opportunity in this place, in this session, which may not again present itself. It is the opportunity to prove to Canadians, ourselves included, that a parliamentary form of government is not only capable of meeting the demands of this complex age, but that it is more capable of doing so than is any other form. It is the opportunity to prove to the world that a democratic system is not only representative of the wishes of the majority but that it does in fact protect the minority. It is the opportunity, in short, to illustrate that parliament is both protective and effective, protective of those traditional values which we all cherish and effective in recognizing and dealing with the present needs of our contemporary society.

I firmly believe that this institution of parliament has for centuries proven its superiority over other forms of legislative bodies because it has demonstrated its ability to meet adequately the changing demands made upon it. Neither the parliament of Canada nor the parliament of any other country has every added to its stature by clinging to its past at the expense of its future. When hon. members discuss the need for procedural reform, they do so mindful of the strength which parliament has attained from the wise evolution of its procedures over the years. The problems which now face Canada, and which her elected representatives are dedicated to solve, are not the problems of a Walpole or a Pitt or a Gladstone or a Churchill, nor are they the problems of a Macdonald or a Laurier. Within the areas of responsibility of this twenty eighth parliament of Canada are matters of economic and social consequence of such depth and breadth, and of such complexity and number, as would have staggered the imagination of many of our predecessors.

By common consent the role of government has spread into areas where it had never previously extended. By obvious need, the entire panoply of scientific achievement is now mustered in aid of any legislative solutions. Notwithstanding these increasing demands, the time available to this house each week for the conduct of its business is not significantly greater than it was a century ago, nor have the traditional and proper roles of government and opposition changed. It is the government's function to propose legislative solutions. It is the opposition's task to

September 16, 1968

question these solutions and attempt to improve them or propose alternatives. Neither role can be subordinate to the other.

It goes without saying that any proposal for procedural reform must assist both sides of this house to function more efficiently. Anything less would be self-defeating. Anything less would diminish the very institution which we seek to assist. The discussions which have been proceeding on and off for the past fortnight, or even longer, among the representatives of the several parties /in the house must not be permitted to continue indefinitely.

[DOT] (5:40 p.m.)

Topic:   SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
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?

Some hon. Members:

Hear, hear.

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LIB

Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Prime Minister)

Liberal

Mr. Trudeau:

Nor should they be permitted to lead, either by agreement or in the absence of it, to procedural changes which will upset the delicate and essential balance between government and opposition so necessary to the proper functioning of parliament. Members on this side of the house should not forget the investment of time and energy- the opposition may even think, perhaps too much time and energy-which has been necessarily devoted to the preparation and presentation of legislative proposals. They should not forget this lest they assume that hon. members opposite are somehow able to study and consider those same proposals in a fraction of that time. Good legislation, effective legislation, requires the expenditure of extensive effort on both sides of this house.

It is our responsibility as members to engage here in discussions which are as knowledgeable as possible. Every opportunity to learn more about proposed legislation, and more about the social or economic or other situations which have given rise to that proposed legislation, must be followed by all of us. It is my feeling that the advantage in this respect has too long rested with the government. For that reason a most important concept which has been proposed to members, along with other procedural reforms, is the provision of public funds to permit opposition parties to obtain the services of researchers, advisers and experts to assist them. The government cannot function without expert assistance. For the same reason, neither should the opposition be expected to do so.

Withal, however, we must keep constantly in mind the temper of the people of this country. The public expects this house to be productive, to be efficient, to be wise in its

The Address-Mr. Trudeau deliberations. We must not contribute to any belief that we here are more involved with the sound of our voices than with the good of Canada. I am sure this sense of urgency is fully shared by members of this house.

This concern about the substance of our deliberations, however, may prove of little value should we be unable to break out of the procedural strait-jacket which now embraces us. Conducting business on the basis of the old rules to which we have reverted is not entirely without a certain degree of charm, I must admit. There is, for example, a touch of history revealed in the names of the committees of the house. My favourite is unquestionably the agriculture and colonization committee. But all the colour of its title will not equip that committee to do the work required of it. For one thing, it has 60 members, almost one quarter of the total membership of this house.

Under this system we cannot accomplish a fraction of what this house agrees must be done. The whole structure of committees simply must be reviewed and overhauled as the first step in the process of procedural reform.

Topic:   SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
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?

Some hon. Members:

Hear, hear.

Topic:   SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
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LIB

Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Prime Minister)

Liberal

Mr. Trudeau:

There are other contemplated changes that may require intensive study. A possible change, for example, but one which must be examined carefully, is the practice of delegating legislative authority, in terms of ministerial orders and orders made in council, and in the sense of decisions of quasijudicial bodies. Whatever we decide, it should be based on a full knowledge of both the strengths and the weaknesses of our present practices. Accordingly, I have asked the President of the Privy Council (Mr. Macdonald) to give attention to these particular practices.

We have all had occasion to observe recently the heartening phenomenon in Canada of widespread involvement in political activities by many segments of the community which until now were detached. We have all had the opportunity to note the frightening consequences in other countries, and it is noted in some places of our own, of the alienation of large numbers of people from the mainstream of a country's political life. Like it or not, we in this house bear a heavy responsibility for promoting healthy involvement and for discouraging unhealthy alienation. We discharge that responsibility through our activities here, by projecting throughout this land an image of a parliament aware of its responsibilities,

September 16, 1968

The Address-Mr. Trudeau alert to its opportunities, cognizant of its traditions, and determined in its role.

These are not easy tasks to perform. Worth-while tasks never are. But should we not reform our procedures, these tasks may prove impossible. In that event, the involvement of Canadians in the political life of this country, through participation in political parties, may decrease, and we the elected politicians will have only ourselves to blame. The benefits of a better functioning parliament will not be enjoyed only by the members of this house; they will extend to all the people of Canada now and in the future.

Topic:   SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
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?

Some hon. Members:

Hear, hear.

Topic:   SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
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LIB

Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Prime Minister)

Liberal

Mr. Trudeau:

Mr. Speaker, during most of this speech I have been talking about problems and solutions, but I would not wish to sit down without referring, however briefly, to the unlimited potential of this country and its people. Whenever our problems begin to look overwhelming or insoluble, we should try to see them in a wider perspective. Compared to most of the other nations of the world, we are fortunate indeed.

Topic:   SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
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?

Some hon. Members:

Hear, hear.

Topic:   SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
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LIB

Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Prime Minister)

Liberal

Mr. Trudeau:

Our internal divisions, damaging though they are, must appear minor to the inhabitants of many other regions of the globe. Our treasury of resources, both human and natural, is probably unmatched. We must renew our resolve to prove ourselves worthy of the great bounty which nature and our ancestors have bestowed upon us.

Since this house last sat I have enjoyed the opportunity of travelling in all parts of this country and of meeting great numbers of Canadians of every origin and occupation. I return with increased confidence in the ability of the Canadian people to meet the challenges which lie ahead. As their elected representatives we must demonstrate that we are capable of handling the nation's business in the decisive and orderly manner which is expected of us. We must make this first parliament of our second century the best in Canadian history.

Topic:   SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
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?

Some hon. Members:

Hear, hear.

Topic:   SPEECH FROM THE THRONE
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PRESENCE IN SPEAKER'S GALLERY OF MEMBERS OF CARIBBEAN LEGISLATURES

IND

Lucien Lamoureux (Speaker of the House of Commons)

Independent

Mr. Speaker:

Order, please. Before calling on the hon. member for York South may I be

permitted to bring to the attention of hon. members the presence in the Speaker's gallery of a very special delegation from sister commonwealth countries in the Caribbean.

Topic:   PRESENCE IN SPEAKER'S GALLERY OF MEMBERS OF CARIBBEAN LEGISLATURES
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?

Some hon. Members:

Hear, hear.

Topic:   PRESENCE IN SPEAKER'S GALLERY OF MEMBERS OF CARIBBEAN LEGISLATURES
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IND

Lucien Lamoureux (Speaker of the House of Commons)

Independent

Mr. Speaker:

These special guests include three premiers and one Speaker, or perhaps I should say one Speaker and three premiers.

Topic:   PRESENCE IN SPEAKER'S GALLERY OF MEMBERS OF CARIBBEAN LEGISLATURES
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?

Some hon. Members:

Oh, oh.

[DOT] (5:50 p.m.)

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IND

Lucien Lamoureux (Speaker of the House of Commons)

Independent

Mr. Speaker:

They are in Canada under the auspices of the Canadian branch of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. On behalf of all hon. members I extend the warmest greetings to you, gentlemen, and express the wish that your visit to Canada will be pleasant, interesting and fruitful.

Topic:   PRESENCE IN SPEAKER'S GALLERY OF MEMBERS OF CARIBBEAN LEGISLATURES
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?

Some hon. Members:

Hear, hear.

Topic:   PRESENCE IN SPEAKER'S GALLERY OF MEMBERS OF CARIBBEAN LEGISLATURES
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September 16, 1968