May 14, 1965

EXTERNAL AFFAIRS

REPORT BY MINISTER ON CYPRUS VISIT AND NATO MINISTERIAL MEETING

LIB

Paul Joseph James Martin (Secretary of State for External Affairs)

Liberal

Hon. Paul Martin (Secretary of Stale for External Affairs):

Mr. Speaker, in accordance with the practice established by my predecessors I would like to make a brief report on the ministerial meeting of NATO which was held in London this week, and also to give some impressions of my visit to Cyprus.

My purpose in visiting Cyprus was to pay respects on behalf of the Government of Canada and its people to the United Nations force in Cyprus. I went there in particular to visit the men of the Canadian contingent and to thank them for the services which they and their predecessors have rendered to the United Nations peace keeping effort.

I also took the opportunity to have discussions with President Makarios, Vice President Kuchuk and the representative of the United Nations Secretary General Mr. Bernardes. I also saw the commander of the UN force, General Thimayya, in Geneva on my way to [DOT]Cyprus. The acting commander of the force in General Thimayya's absence is Brigadier Bruce Macdonald of Edmonton, who has already gained the respect of the two communities on the Island. I left Cyprus, Mr. Speaker, prouder than ever to be a Canadian.

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Some hon. Members:

Hear, hear.

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LIB

Paul Joseph James Martin (Secretary of State for External Affairs)

Liberal

Mr. Martin (Essex East):

No one could have felt otherwise after seeing the efficient and compassionate manner in which the men of the Canadian contingent are carrying out their varied duties, and I am happy to report this to my colleague the Minister of National Defence.

There is no substitute for personal observation. It was an unforgettable experience to fly deep into the Kyrenia hills where a part of the Canadian contingent carries out United Nations control duties in one of the most sensitive and heavily fortified areas on the Island. There I saw a tiny outpost marked by the flag of the United Nations and manned by Canadian soldiers, interposed between

Greek and Turkish strongpoints on nearby opposing hilltops.

Despite the delicacy and the danger of their assignment the Canadian troops, like the other contingents in the force, do not place a narrow limit on their peace keeping task. A young Canadian medical officer spends a good part of each day ministering to the tragic needs of refugees. Cypriot farmers are driven through danger areas on the way to harvest their crops.

I need not emphasize that in the midst of all the destruction, human misery and economic chaos, the United Nations is playing an indispensable role. I do not believe that the relative stability which prevails on that island today would have been possible had it not been for the United Nations force. An important task of the force is to interpose itself between the opposing lines and to patrol the areas of potential conflict so as to prevent the escalation of minor incidents.

In countless local situations the force, often represented by local commanders of very junior rank, has succeeded in negotiating a cease fire and a local settlement. When local negotiation fails the issues must be taken up with the leadership of the two communities by the force commander or the representative of the Secretary General.

At the NATO meeting I underlined the indispensable peace keeping role that the United Nations force is performing in Cyprus. It is important, however, to recognize that the effectiveness of the United Nations force may diminish in proportion to the fading of hopes for movement toward a settlement. We cannot afford to slacken the impetus toward an agreed solution.

In my conversations I naturally maintained the position that as a contributor to the United Nations force Canada would not advocate a particular solution, but I did urge at every opportunity that there should be early negotiations between the parties. I put this view not only to the President and Vice President of Cyprus but to the foreign ministers of Greece and Turkey, with whom I had private talks in London. I was therefore encouraged as I listened to the constructive statements they made in the NATO Council confirming that they had agreed to meet together with

May 14, 1965

Report on NATO and Cyprus a view to normalizing relations between Greece and Turkey and to improving the situation in Cyprus.

The NATO meetings in London provided an opportunity for an important and timely review of current problems. There was frankness and understanding; and despite the differences which admittedly exist in national viewpoints on some questions, I came away encouraged by the degree of basic cohesion and good will among members of the alliance. This meeting was a good example of the growing fact of NATO consultation. I can do no more than all my predecessors have done in reporting on these NATO meetings; that is, to respect the confidential nature of the discussions, which of course embraced vital problems of interest and concern within and beyond the NATO area. NATO now is concerned inevitably with issues of a global character, and Canada, as a founder member of NATO, is profoundly concerned with the future of the transatlantic alliance.

Last December, on Canadian initiative, it was agreed that in view of fundamental changes since 1949 inside and outside the alliance the time had now come for NATO countries to consider the future of their association and the common purposes and objectives which keep the alliance together. Our purpose was to encourage other NATO members to examine the kind of alliance that could continue to provide security for its members yet be sufficiently flexible to cope successfully with changed conditions.

At the recent meeting in London this study was given further impetus, and there is now a possibility that the future of the alliance will be the subject of continuing discussion in the Permanent Council and at the Ministerial Meeting next December in Paris, if this seems appropriate. I use the latter phrase "if this seems appropriate" advisedly, because it would be regrettable if any issue were raised which might cause any measure of serious disunity within the alliance itself.

On my way from Cyprus to London I was very glad to be able to open officially the Canadian Consulate General in Marseilles under Mr. Eugene Bussiere.

In addition to visiting Cyprus and attending the NATO meeting I had the benefit of discussions with the French Foreign Minister, M. Couve de Murville, as well as with the British Foreign Secretary, Mr. Stewart, whom I met for the first time; the Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations, Mr. Bot-tomley, and Mr. Anthony Greenwood, the

Colonial Secretary, with whom I discussed Commonwealth Caribbean questions. I profited greatly from these talks which ranged widely over topics of mutual interest. I also held useful talks with a group of Canadian heads of diplomatic missions who had assembled to discuss matters of importance concerning Western Europe.

From these talks I have returned convinced that despite present differences in the western community there is a serious common determination to consider how NATO could adjust to changing circumstances. There can be no doubt about the need for preserving this alliance in the present state of the world.

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PC

Heath Nelson Macquarrie

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Heath Macquarrie (Queens):

It is a

pleasure to welcome the Secretary of State for External Affairs back among us. Had I known when he was coming I would have gone to the airport to meet him. Perhaps because of my lowly status he would find this appropriate, considering the treatment he received on one of his arrivals abroad. However, he is not a man, nor am I, to indulge in anything acrimonious or bitter. It is a pleasure to follow the Minister, but it is also something of a challenge. His style is so fluid and his syntax so varied that I am reminded of the challenge that was faced by King Richard in Ivanhoe, when his mighty sword could not find any resistance in Saladin's pillow.

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Some hon. Members:

Oh, oh.

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PC

Heath Nelson Macquarrie

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Macquarrie:

I think the Minister, as all returning Ministers, spoke with optimism and spoke as the good international that he is. I say that in particular in his reference to the Canadian servicemen in strife-torn Cyprus, he spoke for all of us, or surely for almost all of us, when he said that looking upon their record and their performance he was prouder than ever to be a Canadian. So say we all.

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Some hon. Members:

Hear, hear.

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PC

Heath Nelson Macquarrie

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Macquarrie:

I quite agree with him that the UN is indeed playing an indispensable role in bringing about what he described as the relative stability in Cyprus. I think, however, in this whole matter of UN forces, quite frequently-and I know there are terrific difficulties-the emphasis upon peace keeping seems to pre-empt what might be greater efforts on peace making; and we have heard very little of the role of the UN conciliation officers in such trouble spots as Cyprus.

May 14. 196!

I am glad the Minister took some initiative in this regard in his discussions with the Foreign Ministers of Greece and Turkey. Some newspapermen suggested that the Canadian initiative was not as great as the press releases said, but I am more of a Canadian than a Conservative and I hope it was just as great as all the press releases indicated. Certainly no matter how important and how effective is the quasi-military operation, the move must be made ever stronger toward a settlement, a conciliation, a pacification.

In reference to the NATO Council, we are faced with the constant difficulty which presents itself after any such meeting, which naturally must take place in an area of confidentiality. I think we all agree with the Minister that the NATO alliance requires at this present time a serious reappraisal, not only in the face of its growing weaknesses but in the face of modern realities in the foreign policy of the great countries of the world and the obvious and clear realignments that are taking place before our very eyes. It is difficult to comment on this, because it is difficult to know what went on.

I noted that the Minister spoke very briefly about his visit to France. I do hope that in his high level discussions there after he arrived in the City of Paris he was able to impress upon the responsible Ministers of that country the very sort of attitude which a fortnight ago he expressed in reference to the sovereign personality of this country in the international community. I note that in today's papers we find indications that continue to cause anxiety as to the movement and incursions in the field of international affairs by those who represent the Provinces in this country. The whole field of international relations is sufficiently complex, heaven knows, without its difficulties being exacerbated further by internal differences within any country.

That is all I want to say. I am glad too that the Minister reiterates the role of the UN and our continuing belief that the UN forms a basic cornerstone of our foreign policy. After I have had a chance to read the statement in full I hope that at some future date, when we have that long delayed external affairs debate, I might have an opportunity to discuss it further. Meanwhile we are glad to welcome the Minister home.

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NDP

Thomas Clement (Tommy) Douglas

New Democratic Party

Mr. T. C. Douglas (Burnaby-Coquillam):

Mr. Speaker, all of us are glad to see the Secretary of State for External Affairs back

Report on NATO and Cyprus in his place. We hope his efforts will attain some measure of success, because we are sure he spent his time overseas in trying to promote peace wherever he could give some assistance in that direction. I was hoping that if we had known when he was coming back the House might have presented him with a copy of John Steinbeck's book "The Wayward Bus". The Minister would probably have appreciated that gift and would have liked to read it during the period of leisure which he will now enjoy after his peregrinations abroad.

I am sure all of us were delighted that he was able to visit the Canadian contingent working with the United Nations peace keeping force in Cyprus. I am sure too that the House was encouraged by the report he has given of the excellent service which the Canadian peace keeping force is rendering in Cyprus at the present time. This is the kind of role for which Canada is admirably suited, and it seems to me that increasingly all our defence plans and all our contributions to discussions on world affairs ought to be directed more and more to the part which Canada can play in peace keeping operations wherever they are required.

I am sure that all Members are pleased at any contribution which the Secretary of State for External Affairs may have been able to make toward bringing together the Greek and Turkish foreign ministers; because I think all of us are agreed that ultimately a solution in Cyprus must be found, and it can only be found by bringing the two contesting parties together as quickly as possible.

With reference to the meeting of the NATO Ministers, some press reports have suggested that Canada was probably too aggressive in promoting the role of the United Nations. I think it would be the sense of the House if I said to the Minister that I doubt whether any Canadian representative at NATO can be too aggressive about promoting the role of the United Nations. I think the voice of Canada raised at the conference on behalf of a greater role for the United Nations will receive the widespread support not only of the people of Canada but of a great many people throughout the western world.

I think all of us are glad to learn that there is going to be a continuing study as to the changes which will be required in the North Atlantic Treaty alliance. This alliance, which came into being in 1948 to meet a given situation, will have to be altered in view of the fact that the situation has

May 14, 1965

Report on NATO and Cyprus substantially changed. One of the reasons there has been considerable dissension within NATO itself is that NATO has not changed with the changed circumstances to a sufficient extent. Therefore if there is to be a study of the changed role of NATO this could result in NATO becoming an effective instrument for world peace. My own feeling is that increasingly the functions of NATO must be transferred to the United Nations, and that the day must come when NATO will be an instrument of the United Nations rather than merely a local security alliance.

On this point I should like to suggest that if NATO is studying what changes are necessary, it is not too soon for the External Affairs Committee of the House to examine this question in order that any recommendations going from the Canadian Government to NATO conferences will have the wholehearted support of all sections of the House. In a few years we shall have to decide whether Canada is going to stay in NATO, and that decision will be dependant upon what NATO's role is going to be in the future, what its function is going to be, what its objectives and purposes are. I think the External Affairs Committee should begin very soon a study of NATO's future role and its future capacity.

I hope the Government will decide to make greater use of the External Affairs Committee. There are a great many points on which Members in all parts of the House are agreed, particularly on the role which the United Nations could play in world affairs. To the extent we can work out a common foreign policy that is supported by all parties in the House, Canada's voice will be strengthened when Government representatives go to sit in the councils of the nations. I hope the External Affairs Committee will be used increasingly to work out a common policy at least on those points on which there is general agreement.

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SC

Robert Norman Thompson

Social Credit

Mr. R. N. Thompson (Red Deer):

Mr. Speaker, I am sure we are all in agreement with the welcome that has been accorded to the Secretary of State for External Affairs, who is also Acting Prime Minister this morning. If we had known of his arrival I am sure that not only would the hon. Member for Queens have been present to meet him, but quite a few others would have been there as well.

We followed the reports of his visits to Cyprus, Marseilles, Paris and London, and not only do we agree with his statement that he

was proud to be a Canadian but if we could set aside our partisan robes for a few minutes I think we would also say that we were proud of Canada's Foreign Minister. In fact I am sure that if some of us would be true to our own feelings for a moment we would agree that we were indignant when we learned that on his arrival at Orly airport in Paris he was not given the full red carpet treatment that Canada and her External Affairs Minister fully deserve.

This leads me to observe that the Minister said very little about his discussions with his opposite number in France. I am sure that in the light of his particular role at this time and in the light of the policies that France is obviously following, Canada must not only take the initiative but must use every ounce of her good will and her status among the nations to strengthen the amiable and agreeable situation that should exist between France and her allies. I am sure the Minister agrees that he and Canada have a very important role in this regard in addition to our role in NATO and our role in the United Nations, having particular reference to peace keeping operations.

In my view the statement the Minister has made with regard to Canada being one of the founding nations of NATO is true in that we should be much concerned about NATO's common purposes and objectives and the role of this organization in coping successfully with the changing conditions we now face which are so vastly different from conditions when NATO first came into being.

Last night we heard a report of the accusation of some member countries of NATO that the Canadian delegation was perhaps too ambitious in that its initiative was too strong for their liking, but I think we should not be too much concerned about that type of criticism. Certainly it is not good enough to stand on the status quo and think NATO can survive just because it happens to have done a good job in the past or because the presence of a peace keeping force in Cyprus has brought about a comparatively peaceful situation. Unless those who are the intentions behind the Cyprus problem, unless those who are members of NATO and among the leading member nations of the United Nations as well push forward in an aggressive and constructive way to strengthen the role of these organizations in the changing scene in the world today, we are going to fail to achieve our objectives and our over-all purpose.

Again we say it is good to have the Secretary of State for External Affairs back in our

May 14, 1965

midst. We are grateful for the work that has been done. It serves to challenge us to face the tremendous needs of the future in all the areas which his report covered.

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RA

Gilles Grégoire

Ralliement Créditiste

Mr. Gilles Gregoire (Lapointe):

Mr. Speaker, we are glad to join with the other members of this house in welcoming back the Secretary of State for External Affairs (Mr. Martin), upon his return to Canada from his long trip overseas.

The minister is certainly one of the most genial members of the house and I think it is always a happy occasion for all to see him back among us.

However, we are sorry about the reception he got in Paris. But I know the minister will understand that the French government was keeping the red carpet treatment, the high officials and what have you, for the next Quebec delegation which is to leave at the beginning of the week to negotiate new agreements with the French government.

In my opinion this is symbolical, because France was always a country whose culture illuminated the world, and with the Quebec government about to negotiate new agreements with that country respecting cultural affairs, it is normal that this official reception, this red carpet treatment be reserved to the Quebec government and its negotiators.

However, Mr. Speaker, we would have been happy if our Secretary of State for External Affairs had also been given such a reception, with a "Turkish rug", perhaps in view of the fact that he travelled close to Turkey before he came back to Canada.

Concerning the minister's visit to Cyprus, we would point out that a year and a half ago he asked parliament for authorization to send Canadian troops to that country so they could act as mediators and bring the necessary help to ensure an agreement and peace in that island which was threatened with a civil war as well as a war between Turkey and Greece.

At that time we were told that the operations would last six months but when that period was over two successive delays of six months were asked.

Since then Canada has been footing the bill for all that. Under the circumstances I think the minister should do his best to convince the other countries concerned to make an effort to come to an agreement as soon as possible so that Cyprus can continue to attend to her business by herself and that other countries do not have to spend millions of dollars to restore peace in the island.

DEBATES 1289

Northwest Territories Advisory Committee

I feel that the countries which have a military force in Cyprus must come up with a pacific solution, since they have now been between the two groups long enough to know what kind of an agreement could be negotiated and respected.

With regard to NATO, we did not get much in formation.

We feel, however, that the minister should strive to give a new direction to the work and goals of NATO and, in my opinion, one of the aims of NATO should be to provide assistance to under-developed countries. Such assistance should be provided in the form of food, technical assistance, agricultural products and farm machinery.

This would be the best way in which NATO could contribute to world peace.

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LIB

Paul Joseph James Martin (Secretary of State for External Affairs)

Liberal

Mr. Martin (Essex East):

Mr. Speaker, I neglected to table the communique, as is always done, and to ask the House that as on other occasions it be made an appendix to our proceedings for today.

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Maurice Bourget (Speaker of the Senate)

Mr. Speaker:

Does the House agree?

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?

Some hon. Members:

Agreed.

[Editor's note: For text of communique referred to see appendix.]

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NORTHERN AFFAIRS

NORTHWEST TERRITORIES-APPOINTMENT OF MEMBER OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON DEVELOPMENT OF GOVERNMENT

LIB

John Napier Turner (Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources)

Liberal

Mr. John N. Turner (Parliamentary Secretary to Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources):

On Tuesday, Mr. Speaker, the Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources announced in the House the establishment of an advisory commission on the development of government in the Northwest Territories. I am pleased this morning to be able to report that Mr. Jean Beetz, LL.L., M.A., of Montreal has accepted the invitation to serve as a member of this important commission.

Mr. Beetz, a professor in the Montreal faculty of law, is a well-known expert in constitutional law.

Like the two other members of the commission, Professor Beetz is a young man of high repute.

I am sure, Mr. Speaker, that Professor Beetz will bring vigour and insight to the

May 14, 1965

Inquiries of the Ministry work of the commission, and we know he will make a significant contribution to its undertaking.

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EXTERNAL AFFAIRS

May 14, 1965