March 24, 1952

PC

Arza Clair Casselman (Chief Opposition Whip; Whip of the Progressive Conservative Party)

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Casselman:

Bring him in, then.

Topic:   HUMAN RIGHTS
Subtopic:   DECLARATION TO ENSURE FUNDAMENTAL
Sub-subtopic:   REFERENCE TO SUPREME COURT AS TO JURISDICTION
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LIB

Walter Edward Harris (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration)

Liberal

Mr. Harris (Grey-Bruce):

-but unfortunately he is ill today.

Topic:   HUMAN RIGHTS
Subtopic:   DECLARATION TO ENSURE FUNDAMENTAL
Sub-subtopic:   REFERENCE TO SUPREME COURT AS TO JURISDICTION
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PC

Arza Clair Casselman (Chief Opposition Whip; Whip of the Progressive Conservative Party)

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Casselman:

Where is he?

Topic:   HUMAN RIGHTS
Subtopic:   DECLARATION TO ENSURE FUNDAMENTAL
Sub-subtopic:   REFERENCE TO SUPREME COURT AS TO JURISDICTION
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LIB

Walter Edward Harris (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration)

Liberal

Mr. Harris (Grey-Bruce):

I therefore move the adjournment of the debate.

Topic:   HUMAN RIGHTS
Subtopic:   DECLARATION TO ENSURE FUNDAMENTAL
Sub-subtopic:   REFERENCE TO SUPREME COURT AS TO JURISDICTION
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?

Some hon. Members:

No.

Topic:   HUMAN RIGHTS
Subtopic:   DECLARATION TO ENSURE FUNDAMENTAL
Sub-subtopic:   REFERENCE TO SUPREME COURT AS TO JURISDICTION
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PC

Gordon Graydon

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Graydon:

No. Call the yeas and nays.

St. Lawrence River

Drew

Fairclough, Mrs.

Fraser

Graydon

Green

Hees

Herridge

Hodgson

Jones

Knight

Knowles

Macdonnell (Greenwood)

McGregor

Noseworthy

Pearkes

Stewart (Winnipeg North) White (Middlesex East) Wright-28.

Topic:   HUMAN RIGHTS
Subtopic:   DECLARATION TO ENSURE FUNDAMENTAL
Sub-subtopic:   REFERENCE TO SUPREME COURT AS TO JURISDICTION
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PC

Lewis Elston Cardiff

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Cardiff:

I was paired. Had my pair been here I am sure he would have voted, with me against the motion.

Topic:   HUMAN RIGHTS
Subtopic:   DECLARATION TO ENSURE FUNDAMENTAL
Sub-subtopic:   REFERENCE TO SUPREME COURT AS TO JURISDICTION
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PC

A. Earl Catherwood

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Cafherwood:

I was paired with the hon. member for Kent, Ont. (Mr. Huffman). Had I voted, I would have voted against the motion.

Topic:   HUMAN RIGHTS
Subtopic:   DECLARATION TO ENSURE FUNDAMENTAL
Sub-subtopic:   REFERENCE TO SUPREME COURT AS TO JURISDICTION
Permalink
LIB

James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. Gardiner:

I was paired, but I inadvertently voted.

Topic:   HUMAN RIGHTS
Subtopic:   DECLARATION TO ENSURE FUNDAMENTAL
Sub-subtopic:   REFERENCE TO SUPREME COURT AS TO JURISDICTION
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ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PREVENTION OF EROSION AND REMEDY OF LOSSES ALREADY SUFFERED

IND

Arthur Massé

Independent Liberal

Mr. Arthur Masse (Kamouraska) moved:

That, in the opinion of this house, the government should give early consideration to the advisability of examining thoroughly the causes of the ever-increasing erosion of the shores of the St. Lawrence, and the natural and artificial means which could be used in order to remedy the losses already suffered and to prevent such disastrous consequences in the future.

(Translation) :

He said: Mr. Speaker, I am happy to introduce this motion which concerns part of the district that covers about a thousand miles of the shores of the St. Lawrence river. After having received representations from an important group from my county and the surrounding districts and having been familiar for some considerable time with the effects of erosion on the shores of the St. Lawrence river, I am happy to submit this proposal to the house.

Anyone can realize the effects of erosion when it has taken place, but let us think of the despair of the small farmer when he contemplates perhaps the loss of a building, perhaps the loss of a piece of land which was dear to him, or some other disaster.

In the practice of my profession I often had the chance to see the effects of erosion. Sometimes a few hundred feet of land if not 500 have been washed away by extremely heavy tides. In other places there is cause for deep despair whenever the tide is too strong.

What does erosion mean, in the first place?

It means the entire or partial disintegration of the soil, brought about by various causes, natural as well as artificial, and taking into account the nature of the soil, its exposure, the

St. Lawrence River

quality of its maintenance, and whether it is under cultivation or covered with trees, Indeed a calcareous shore will be less affected than one made up of alluvial soil, that is a soil having rather fine particles, which offers practically no resistance to erosion. Therefore, everything depends on the way the shore is exposed. It is clear that a naturally slopy bank will be less affected than a steep bank. A survey of the shores of the St. Lawrence will show at one place a headland made up of calcareous or aqueous rock which will withstand breakers and bad weather. Elsewhere stretches rich flat open-country where the capacity for protection is lowered to a minimum. .

And what about the banks that are generally exposed to the east and northeast wind? Obviously they do not resist as well as those that are exposed to the west winds.

In the early days of the colony, the banks were protected by a wooded area, in which the soil was clustered with roots of trees and could resist erosion to a certain extent. It is quite certain that under those circumstances the dangers were reduced to a minimum. The soil at certain times appeared to get protection from the alluvial deposits of tides and could stand their first thrust without deterioration, Today, however, agriculture having displaced the forest, the soil in bays, lending itself to farming and having been submitted to intensive cultivation, is. surely not in the same condition as it was in those early days.

Moreover, if it were possible to distribute this rainfall uniformly over the year, it would be much easier to regulate erosion; but as the rainfall, which is more or less the same during the year, is not equally distributed, there arise some extremely difficult conditions.

Supposing that the waters of a stream, instead of taking some time to reach the St. Lawrence, rush to that river, because of extensive deforestation along most of our streams, in a comparatively short space of time, at a moment of extremely high tide, the soil, under such circumstances would become practically semi-liquid and would offer no resistance to weathering.

It is admitted that most of the plateaus along the banks of the St. Lawrence have been deforested to excess, leaving the soil bare, with practically no water penetration, so that the water flows immediately towards the lower

{Mr. Masse.]

plateaus where it is fully absorbed. Consequently, the soil offers practically no resisj tance to erosion.

May I now quote, in support of my statement, the words of Mr. Avila Bedard, the dean of the faculty of surveys and forestry of Laval university:

The forest adds undeniable beauty to a picturesque landscape, hides in its mysterious depths abundant game for the hunter's pleasure and profit, purifies the air, asepticises subsidiary waters, prevents sudden thermometric variations, regulates the distribution of rainfalls, moderates the speed of winds, stabilizes, through its multiple roots, the soil on steep slopes, directs the formation, feeding and maintenance of the streams.

There we have an idea of what deforestation may produce. In the county of Kam-ouraska, there are vast plains practically at a level with the waters of the St. Lawrence where dikes have been put up.

These works, built by means of piles, have been carried out in order to prevent very strong tides from ruining the land and destroying the harvest which so rich a soil might have borne. Erected more than two hundred years ago, the works are still perfectly preserved; it stands to reason that it might be advantageous for us, if asked to do so, to carry out the experiment in some similar place. P

I would be happy to learn that a formula has been devised which would solve once and for all the problem of provincial and federal rights in connection with these works. I am not qualified to discuss the matter from a legal standpoint; but some of my colleagues may be willing to do it. However, I wish we were able to give a satisfactory answer to all those who ask us to carry out works that might prove useful to the landowners along the St. Lawrence. I wish the various governments would stop passing the buck.

The unlimited working of virgin forests is such as to make much worse the damage wrought by high tides.

I have had occasion, while carrying on my business as a surveyor, and that is only in the past twenty years, to observe how great is the damage wrought, in certain circumstances, by erosion.

However, when analysing the circumstances in which erosion has wrought the damages it has, it seems to me it would be easy to prevent, or at least to reduce, its ill effects on the owners of riverside property in these towns.

When I said a moment ago that regulating waterways would be most beneficial, I did not mean in so far as the immediate cause was concerned but with respect to the remote cause; as a matter of fact, if all rivers could be regulated in such a way as to ensure a constant flow, it is absolutely certain we would no longer be plagued by very heavy rains, the effect of which is to liquefy the soil, so that it no longer offers any resistance to erosion.

When works are carried out on the banks of the St. Lawrence by one of the governments and when they offer an obstacle to the tide and whether it be a wharf or a dam or any other obstacle placed across the river of at its mouth, it is most certain that any damages are the responsibility of the government that has carried out these projects. If a cause must produce an effect, it is undeniable that the causes of erosion resulting from those works may be attributed to the government which did those works.

By what means can we provide for identical cases?

About a week ago, I received from a forestry engineer who is a colleague of mine a request concerning a district located on the north shore, where I think the engineering service is attempting to stabilize some ground at the mouth of the Moisie river. It would be possible to make it comparatively stable, but the ground must first be protected by means of retaining walls. The best way to protect the places thus exposed would be to build retaining walls in such a way as to dam up the tide and prevent it from producing those damages which may be seen after each excessive tide, especially in the spring or fall at equinox time. These protective walls may be made of timber or concrete. As I stated a moment ago, the Seigniors of Kamouraska, some two hundred years ago, used to drive in rows of stakes backed by masses of earth on which grows an abundant vegetation; this last element is in itself a source of stability and firmness for the ground, while ensuring protection to the inhabitants of the riverside. Mr. Speaker, I have dealt very briefly with the damage, more visible in certain areas and less so in others, that is generally felt all along the banks of the St. Lawrence.

I have set forth, to the best of my knowledge, what I believe to be the best direct and indirect means of preventing this

St: Lawrence River

damage. My suggestion in the way of preventive measures would be to erect protective walls of a kind calculated to ensure the riverside resident that his dear old house will remain as it was when his ancestors were alive, thus ensuring a better protection to the area and making myself useful to my own community, in particular, and more generally to the residents established on the shores of the St. Lawrence.

Topic:   ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PREVENTION OF EROSION AND REMEDY OF LOSSES ALREADY SUFFERED
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LIB

Lomer Brisson

Liberal

Mr. Lomer Brisson (Saguenay):

Mr. Speaker, the resolution before the house reads as follows:

That, in the opinion of this house, the government should give early consideration to the advisability of examining thoroughly the causes of the ever-increasing erosion of the shores of the St. Lawrence, and the natural and artificial means which could be used in order to remedy the losses already suffered and to prevent such disastrous consequences in the future.

I congratulate the hon. member for Kamouraska (Mr. Masse) for having introduced the resolution and for the clear technical explanation he has given of it.

The problem of erosion directly concerns the county of Saguenay. 1 have in my files more than fifteen requests coming from different municipalities of the county of Saguenay. I have some from Tadoussac, Petites Bergeronnes, Les Escoumains, Saint-Paul-du-Nord, Raguenau, Pointe-aux-Outar-des, Baie Saint-Ludger, Godbout, Riviere Sainte-Marguerite, Riviere Moisie, Sheldrake, Magpie, Riviere Saint-Jean, Longue-Pointe de Mingan et Natashkuan.

In some cases, Mr. Speaker, plots of farm land may be endangered; in other instances villages are threatened and particularly, as the previous speakers pointed out, one whole village is also threatened on the Moisie river, where the federal government is now building a radar station.

I believe that the federal government should pay more adequate attention to the problem, because it is always being repeated, in this kind of request, that the federal government may intervene only when damages are caused by federal structures. Well, I understand that this matter affects equally municipalities, provinces and the federal government. I approve without reserve the resolution to carefully examine the position in the near future, with a view to determining the reasons for this erosion and to find the ways and means by which the three governments concerned could remedy the situation..

St. Lawrence River

Topic:   ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PREVENTION OF EROSION AND REMEDY OF LOSSES ALREADY SUFFERED
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LIB

Alcide Côté (Postmaster General)

Liberal

Mr. A. Phileas Cote (Maiapedia-Matane):

Mr. Speaker, I did not think I would be speaking a second time today, for I had no idea the other debate would come to such an abrupt end. However, I am glad to support the motion of my hon. friend, the member for Kamouraska (Mr. Masse), not because it gives me the feeling of participating in what one might be tempted to call a "family compact", as when one sees a gathering of people from lower Quebec, but it has happened here that members from one region have called for the co-operation of their colleagues, ours for instance, and therefore, considering that the St. Lawrence flows through the province of Quebec and that the seaway did not bring it to the head of the great lakes, we may this evening, without appearing too bold, beseech the other members of the House of Commons to join us in our attempt to express a wish to the government; and as far as I am concerned, or rather as far as my constituents are concerned, we hope that this wish will find expression in some practical measure.

May I acquaint the house with the case of Petite Matane. I have not said anything about it yet since I did not think it necessary to speak about it openly, on the floor of the house. I had thought that urgent repairs having had to be carried out last year in my county, it would be seen to it that this would not happen again.

I had at the time warned the government that unless a protective wall were erected at Petite Matane the church and rectory would be washed away, that part of the cemetery would float on the angry waves of the St. Lawrence.

Topic:   ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PREVENTION OF EROSION AND REMEDY OF LOSSES ALREADY SUFFERED
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?

Some hon. Members:

Oh. oh.

Topic:   ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PREVENTION OF EROSION AND REMEDY OF LOSSES ALREADY SUFFERED
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PC

Charles Delmar Coyle

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Cole (Malapedia-Malane):

I hear some of my friends laughing, but you know, Mr. Speaker, that coffins did go wandering on the angry waves of the St. Lawrence in my constituency and that we did put up a wall, post haste, the coffins, by that time, having probably reached the county of Gaspe, or the gulf, or even the ocean.

I do not find that funny at all. I understand that the dead will not come back to vote for Phileas Cote; I also understand that possibly the relatives of the dead will not vote for me either, but that is not why I am speaking this evening. It is to prevent the rectory and church of Petite Matane from sailing away to the other side of the Atlantic.

I have no objection to our providing and sending overseas all that is necessary to

maintain our position internationally, but I absolutely refuse to have the dead brought out of the cemeteries and to have the parish priest go sailing in his rectory to deliver the money we send.

I also wish to speak of the Matane home for the aged. When the old folks' home burned in Rimouski, emergency repairs had to be made to keep the building upright, so that it too would not glide away on the troubled waters of the St. Lawrence.

Fortunately, the Minister of Public Works (Mr. Fournier) was again bent on spoiling me by providing us with the necessary help, when that situation occurred.

But everything is linked to that point and I believe that we have settled a problem which I think should be considered in the light of the resolution.

I know that concerning Matane, the department engineers at Rimouski have claimed that harbour was being filled up not by debris carried by the Matane river, for then the matter would come under the provincial jurisdiction, but by sand from the St. Lawrence river.

Until the St. Lawrence river is dredged it seems to me that it will be impossible to remove the causes of this erosion which happens every spring in Matane harbour.

I am therefore asking the Minister of Public Works and the rest of the government to study this question, which many members, especially those from the province of Quebec, have deemed important enough to raise here.

It is a question which must be dealt with and which deserves a complete and immediate study. I am sure the Minister of Public Works and the government will show their good will and that the people of that district will be protected. Hon. members from the other provinces will forgive us for speaking at such length on this question of erosion, but I believe this is as much a national emergency as the floods at Winnipeg, the grain problems in Saskatchewan and other catastrophes which they call disasters. Well, the problem of erosion along the St. Lawrence river does not concern only the province of Quebec but the country as a whole since those conditions must be remedied before the authorities can go ahead with the St. Lawrence deep waterway project.

(Text):

Topic:   ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PREVENTION OF EROSION AND REMEDY OF LOSSES ALREADY SUFFERED
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PC

George Harris Hees

Progressive Conservative

Mr. George H. Hees (Broadview):

Mr. Speaker, I agree completely with what the previous speakers have said about the dangers

of erosion. I should like very briefly to draw the attention of the government to the tremendous damage that has been done by the erosion and the recent very severe flooding of the Toronto islands. This tremendous damage actually threatens the continued existence of these islands, which are a vitally important part of the Toronto harbour. In fact, without these islands, the Toronto harbour would cease to exist. If these islands are permitted to be damaged any further, then the whole Toronto harbour, and millions of dollars involved in harbour equipment, will be very seriously threatened.

I urge the government to build a breakwater and groynes, which are needed to protect these islands from further flooding and erosion, and thereby maintain this vitally important part of the future St. Lawrence seaway. If these islands are further permitted to deteriorate it will cost the government many many millions of dollars, in fact many times what it would now cost, to put up the breakwater and groynes, when the time comes to construct the St. Lawrence seaway, and when the Toronto harbour will be a very important world port.

I think it is good common sense and good economy for the government now to take these steps, and I urge the Minister of Public Works (Mr. Fournier), who I see is fortunately in the house at the moment, to have a thorough and immediate survey made of what is needed, and when that is determined to proceed immediately in order to save the very great cost which will be incurred if this flooding and erosion are allowed to continue unchecked.

(Translation):

Topic:   ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PREVENTION OF EROSION AND REMEDY OF LOSSES ALREADY SUFFERED
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LIB

J. G. Léopold Langlois (Parliamentary Assistant to the Postmaster General)

Liberal

Mr. L. Langlois (Gaspe):

Mr. Speaker, may I be permitted in the first place to offer my very warm congratulations to my hon. friend, the member for Kamouraska (Mr. Masse) who made such an able and detailed statement when moving this important motion. I am pleased to have this opportunity to speak to this motion, as I have already had the honour a few years ago of placing an almost identical motion on the order paper of the house.

I had this motion put on the order paper because my own county of Gaspe, like most of the districts of the lower St. Lawrence, is also threatened by this calamity which happens every year, especially in the spring and in the fall when the St. Lawrence, swelled high with the breaking-up of the ice

St. Lawrence River

or storms, causes the water to rise and bring about considerable erosion to the shores in our district.

I could give you many instances where irreparable damage has thus been caused. But to be brief, I shall merely recall what happened in Ste-Anne-des-Monts where, a few years ago, five or six residential and commercial buildings were thrown into the sea by tides which were causing considerable erosion to the bank at that place. More recently still, about a year and a half ago, a similar occurrence at Cap-Chat destroyed and threw into the sea two or three buildings. In fact, in a certain place, a stretch of land of some thirty to forty feet wide was literally washed away by the flood.

From Mechins, through Capucins Cap-Chat, Ste-Anne-des-Monts, Mont-Louis and following the whole north shore of the Gaspe peninsula and reaching into Chaleur bay, we have had in the past similar disasters causing considerable damage.

The resolution introduced by my hon. friend nevertheless offers a rather complex solution. In fact, the jurisdiction of the legislatures would first have to be determined with regard to ways of remedying the present situation.

My colleague in the provincial house, the member for Gaspe-Nord, introduced last year in the Quebec legislature a motion almost identical to the one now before us. He took the opportunity to make a splendid review of the situation and he pointed out that a remedy was needed at once. But, unfortunately, the only answer he received from the Quebec government, through the prime minister himself, was to the effect that the provincial government was not responsible for the elements. Such answers do not solve the problem, particularly when given by a leader who has taken over the direction of public affairs in his province.

I am ready to admit-and nobody I imagine would deny it-that this erosion is essentially due to the action of elements. But we have found in the past that all governments, be they federal or provincial, have always worked together to prevent similar catastrophes or, at least, to find a remedy to similar disasters. I need only mention the flooding of the Fraser valley, in British Columbia, of the Red river floods, and of the disasters which befell Cabano and Rimouski; all these

St: Lawrence River

events -Have shewn wHat spectacular results may be achieved by two governments really willing to take some common action in the face of similar catastrophes. I do realize that such co-ordinated action by the federal and provincial governments is possible only when the catastrophe takes such proportions that it becomes a national emergency.

Hon. members who have spoken before me have given examples of similar damage and calamities. They constitute, I believe, sufficient proof that this damage, this loss, is really on a national scale. I am confident that we will find in this house other members who will rise in support of this motion and provide us with examples such as the ones which have already been given during this debate.

I do not think that the difficulty of reaching an agreement between the federal government and the provincial government with a view to providing the necessary remedial action should be an insuperable obstacle to the solution of this problem.

At the present time, the Department of Public Works includes each year in its estimates certain amounts to compensate for similar damages, provided, however, that such damages were caused by some project carried out by a department of the federal government, such as, for instance, the building of a wharf, the dredging of a river, etc. Another condition would have to be added to this vote or a new vote inserted in the estimates, to include any retaining wall necessary to prevent damages caused by the kind of erosion mentioned in the motion debated tonight.

I am of the opinion a complete survey of the problem would have to be made. I believe such a survey could be carried out jointly by the federal government and the provincial governments. It should be a complete survey of the situation with a view to finding the most appropriate remedies.

I do not hesitate to suggest, right now, that the federal government reach an agreement with the legislatures concerned at the earliest possible time.

Mr. Speaker, sometimes the effects of those damages are very disastrous, not only for the individuals concerned, but also for the economy of a whole district.

As an example let us take my county where fishing establishments are to be found here and there along the shores of the Gaspe [Mr. Langlois (Gaspe) .1

peninsula. Those fishing establishments are constantly threatened by erosion. I do not think it is necessary for me to prove to the house that fishing is perhaps the most important industry ip our district. What would happen if erosion should bring about the loss of nearly all or of a good part of our fishing establishments. Our producers would soon find themselves unable to fill the large orders they receive for their products and, as a result, a large number of the people of my county would be deprived of their livelihood.

Those arguments do not apply only to the Gaspe peninsula. The same is true of Saguenay and Matane counties and of the district mentioned by the hon. member for Broadview (Mr. Hees).

It is getting late and I would not wish to deprive any of my colleagues of the opportunity of speaking on the subject. I do not want to resume my seat, however, without again asking the federal government to find a way of reaching an agreement with the provinces concerned so that at least a full survey be made of the matter-not only a brief investigation to satisfy public opinion which has been requesting such a study for years. I believe an agreement could be worked out between the federal and provincial governments so that together they may find a solution to the problem, without interfering with their respective jurisdictions.

I do not think that our Canadian constitution should interfere with the solution of such an important problem. I do hope that a survey will be made in the near future so that we may be able, through the co-operation of all the governments concerned, to solve this serious problem in a permanent way. (Text):

Topic:   ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PREVENTION OF EROSION AND REMEDY OF LOSSES ALREADY SUFFERED
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PC

James MacKerras Macdonnell

Progressive Conservative

Mr. J. M. Macdonnell (Greenwood):

Mr. Speaker, I think it would be natural if I were to say a word or two in addition to what has been said because, after all, my own constituency is suffering from conditions which have been described already by the hon. member for Broadview (Mr. Hees).

The waterfront along Greenwood is being eroded at an alarming rate, and great destruction is being caused. I might point out that this destruction is particularly noticeable right in an area which contains an institution which certain members of the house will regard as even more important than Toronto harbour: I refer to the Woodbine race track.

The Minister of Public Works (Mr. Fournier), disarming as he always is, has told us he has sent an engineer to inquire into the situation. No doubt that engineer will one day bring us back a report which the minister will bring in. It will be a very interesting report on the destruction which has been caused. But I would hope the minister would be able to carry the matter far beyond that, so that we may have this recurring difficulty considered and guarded against in such a way that those who live in the area, particularly the residents of Toronto island, and those who live along the waterfront in my own riding, may have cause to believe that effective remedial measures will be taken.

I was interested in the speech of the hon. member for Gaspe (Mr. Langlois) because he introduced an idea which, to my mind, is important-though up to the present time evidently no progress has been made along that line-and that is his suggestion as to provincial responsibility. It is too bad that we have not the Minister of Justice (Mr. Garson) here this evening to give us his opinion, but we were informed earlier in the evening that for overwhelming, serious reasons, none of which was disclosed to us, he was unable to take part in an earlier debate.

Topic:   ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PREVENTION OF EROSION AND REMEDY OF LOSSES ALREADY SUFFERED
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LIB

Walter Edward Harris (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration)

Liberal

Mr. Harris (Grey-Bruce):

May I point out that I said he was ill.

Topic:   ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PREVENTION OF EROSION AND REMEDY OF LOSSES ALREADY SUFFERED
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PC

James MacKerras Macdonnell

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Macdonnell (Greenwood):

I could not hear that part. I asked afterwards whether he was ill and nobody seemed to know. I do apologize, but I suppose it was one of those illnesses which, however unfortunate it may be for the member concerned, was of certain advantage from the point of view of the party.

Topic:   ST. LAWRENCE RIVER PREVENTION OF EROSION AND REMEDY OF LOSSES ALREADY SUFFERED
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March 24, 1952