April 25, 1950

PC

George Randolph Pearkes

Progressive Conservative

Mr. G. R. Pearkes (Nanaimo):

Mr. Speaker, over a period of a great many years young Canadians have been leaving this country in small numbers to join the Royal Navy, the British regular army and the civil service of Great Britain. In the past, every year, opportunities have been offered to the senior cadets of the Royal Military College to take up commissions in the royal engineers and other regiments of the British army.

On June 5, 1946, a convention was signed dealing with the question of dual taxation. Under article X of that convention it was arranged with the United Kingdom government, and Canada agreed, not to tax pensions paid by the government of the United Kingdom to persons who were residing in Canada. Of course that applied not only to Canadians who had left Canada and had seen service with the British forces, but also to immigrants from the United Kingdom who were in receipt of pensions. I believe a reciprocal condition applied whereby any Britisher who had served in the Canadian forces, and was in receipt of a pension and retired in the United Kingdom, would not be taxed by the United Kingdom authorities. Of course I am not referring to the disability pensions, because disability pensions are not taxable either in this country or in the United Kingdom.

However, I feel that that convention has not worked out in the best interests of Canada or of Canadians. In the first place, very few Canadian pensioners are now living in the United Kingdom, but we have quite a large number of Canadians who have served in the forces of the United Kingdom, or the services of the United Kingdom, and have returned to Canada, and we have a very large number of United Kingdom pensioners who have immigrated to this country.

Unfortunately the regulations place a very great hardship upon the British pensioner who is now resident in Canada, because he is liable to the United Kingdom income tax

if he is in Canada, and he is assessed on a formula which takes into account the sterling value at the current rate of exchange for any Canadian dollar income enjoyed by that pensioner over and above his pension. The effect of devaluation has been, of course, to increase the amount of any such dollar income in terms of sterling, and thus to increase the liability of the pensioner to the United Kingdom income tax. At the same time the pensioner has received a blow on the other cheek as the result of devaluation which, of course, reduces the dollar value of the net amount remitted to him.

The imperial pensioners who have income in Canada have therefore been subjected, since last September, to a twofold reduction in their net income. They are in fact taxed by the British government on their pension and by the Canadian government on the Canadian income, and the rates of taxation in both cases are based on the total income.

I have a case in my constituency of a warrant officer who had served for 27 years in the British army and the Royal Air Force. His pension did not come within an income tax bracket in so far as the British tax is concerned, but he has come to Canada and he is earning a living here. The net result is that his earnings here have placed him in a bracket whereby his British pension becomes taxable in Great Britain; and in every case where a British pensioner is working in this country it raises his tax group both in Great Britain and probably in Canada as well, and in consequence of the devaluation which took place last September, these people are under very considerable handicaps.

Of course the British rate of taxation on income tax is much higher than the Canadian rate. On the British income tax rates anyone with an earned income of $2,000 would be taxed, if he were a single person, at $392. If he were married with two children he would be taxed, under the British rates, at $148; whereas, under the Canadian rates, if he was a single person he would be taxed only $150, and would not be taxed at all if he were, married with two children. Then, if we go to higher brackets, we take the case of the British taxpayer who has an earned income of $4,000. If he were single he would have to pay $1,112, whereas if he were married with two children he would have to pay $847. On the other hand, the Canadian with the taxable earned income of $4,000 would have to pay, if single, approximately $510 and, if married with two children, he would have to pay only $269.

I know these regulations are in accordance with the convention signed in 1946. My object

The Budget-Mr. Pearkes in speaking briefly tonight is to ask the minister if he will consult with the British authorities to see if something cannot be done to alleviate the difficulties of our own Canadian men who, at the request of the British authorities twenty or thirty years ago, left this country and rendered a service in the forces of the United Kingdom. I would ask also whether something cannot be worked out with the United Kingdom authorities to see if those pensioners from the United Kingdom who have taken up residence here in Canada cannot have some easement of this heavy burden of taxation placed upon them because of this dual taxation convention, which has not worked out to the best advantage of Canada and Canadians.

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink
CCF

Joseph William Noseworthy

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.)

Mr. J. W. Noseworihy (York South):

Mr. Speaker, there are I suggest a great many reasons why this year of 1950 should be a momentous year in Canada's economic history. We have just come through three or four of the most prosperous years we have ever known. That prosperity I believe is due to a number of factors. There is the fact that there was accumulated during the war years considerable purchasing power in the pockets of the Canadian consuming public; there is the fact that there piled up a great demand for consumer goods; and the fact that through ERP we were able to find markets for much of our farm produce. These were'years in which the government income increased by leaps and bounds, and surpluses reaching into the hundreds of millions piled up. Part of this condition was also due to the disposal of wartime assets, rather than to any direct policy or any stimulation by government policy.

This would seem to be a year in which Canada could go on expanding her economy, a time when we should seek to raise still further the living standards of our people, a year in which we should seek to provide greater employment for our people, a year in which we should move forward to the development of our natural resources for the benefit of our people-a year, in other words, in which Canada should be expanding and growing, a year in which we should be able to bring to this country immigrants for whom we should be in a position to provide houses and employment, immigrants who could help build a Canadian prosperity.

When we look at the budget we find little in it-as little, in fact, as we found in the speech from the throne-to encourage us in the belief that 1950 will prove to be any such year. The budget has been designated as a stand-pat budget-a stand-pat budget

The Budget-Mr. Noseworthy at a time when this country and its government should be seeking to expand our economy rather than to mark time.

The minister takes the position that most of the estimated revenue in the coming year will be required to meet the present commitments of the government, and that no further expansion of social services can be expected without increasing the present forms of taxation, or imposing new taxes. Apparently the government is not prepared either to increase present taxes or to impose new taxes for the purpose of extending social services.

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink
?

Murdo William Martin

Mr. Marlin:

They have been extended this year to the extent of $60 million.

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink
CCF

Joseph William Noseworthy

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.)

Mr. Noseworlhy:

It has no longer any faith in the future expansion of our trade and industry to the point where greater income may be realized from existing forms of taxation. While the government does not wish to impose new taxes or to increase present taxes, it apparently sees no hope of any further expansion of our trade and industry to the point where the government can commit itself to any expenditures other than those to which it is already committed.

It is in my opinion the absence of that faith and vision in the future of this country that is the most disappointing feature in this year's budget. We have learned in recent years from a great" many of the most outstanding and progressive economists, and we have learned from the government itself, that it is the responsibility of gpod government to direct the economy of the country, that it is the function of good government to assist in the development and expansion of our trade, that it is the function of good government to maintain domestic expenditures on consumer goods, that it is the function of good government to encourage and to assist in expenditures on capital goods.

We have been taught from government white papers, government green papers and cabinet ministers' speeches that it is the function of government to raise the standard of living of our people through adequate housing, through full employment and by expanding social services. These are the policies that from 1945 until the election of 1949 the government led us to believe were and would continue to be its policies. If anything is clear from the budget speech it is that the government has departed from those principles and has reverted to the policies which had such disastrous results in the pre-war years. The government has reverted to the policy of leaving the fate of the future entirely in the keeping of private enterprise. I submit that that is

a job which private enterprise cannot be expected to fulfil in the best interests of the country. I shall touch with a little more detail on one or two of these points which I have raised already.

In the white paper of April 1945 and the green book of August 1945 the government pointed out with great care that in order to maintain full employment in the country it would be necessary to maintain our trade with other countries, particularly with the United Kingdom. They pointed out most carefully that while to some extent that trade would depend on world conditions, yet there were many things the government could do. There are many things which this government has not done and is not proposing to do in the present budget.

There was specific reference to the fact that adjustments of tariffs might be made to regulate and increase foreign trade. Today our great difficulty is finding markets in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom is unable to buy our goods because of a lack of dollars and we just have not found enough intelligence in our government to devise a means by which we can get our goods to England in return for the goods she wants to sell us.

I should like to congratulate the Minister of Finance (Mr. Abbott) upon his report of a few days ago that a committee of Canadian businessmen has been appointed to assist in finding investment opportunities for Canadian capital in sterling area countries. According to our best economists that is one thing that would assist in enabling sterling area countries to buy our goods.

There is not much evidence that the government is doing anything in the way of reducing tariffs on goods from sterling area countries in order to promote trade between Canada and those countries.

So far as I know the only step the government has taken to encourage the investment of Canadian capital is the setting up of this committee. A few weeks ago when the leader of this group suggested that one remedy for our trade situation would be the acceptance of sterling for Canadian goods and the reinvestment of that sterling in sterling area countries the minister objected and said that Canada needed all the capital she could find for investment in Canada. Apparently the government is beginning to see a little light and has given its blessing to the establishment of a committee of Canadian businessmen for the express purpose of finding opportunities for investment in sterling area countries. That is a move in the right direction on which the minister is to be congratulated. We can only hope that during

the year the government will seek other means of making it possible for those countries which need our products, particularly our food products, to be able to buy them.

According to the statements made from 1945 to 1949, the keynote of government policy was the maintenance of full employment. There has been considerable unemployment in Canada during the past winter but government spokesmen have said that this is seasonal, that it is due to the climate and hard winter, that everybody, including God, is to be blamed except the Liberal government. If the government had put into effect early last fall the policy which it set forth so clearly between 1945 and 1949, if it had been ready as it said it would be to initiate government projects or projects of public works in those places where unemployment appeared, a great deal of suffering would have been avoided this year.

There have been more workers employed this year than in any other year, but we must expect that as our population increases and as we bring immigrants into the country. Notwithstanding that increase in the number of employed people there were over 400,000 registered unemployed in the country this winter. That bespeaks a great deal of suffering on the part of many of those 400,000 and their families. In fact that situation would affect at least one million people.

It all was entirely unnecessary. In spite of our cold winter-we expect cold winters in Canada-in spite of our seasons, all this was avoidable if the government had carried out the policy which it laid down in the government papers published in 1945 and which it proclaimed during an election since that time.

With the coming of spring there is no doubt the number of unemployed will be reduced and by midsummer it may reach the normal level. But of necessity we must ask ourselves, what preparations are we making for next year? Next winter may be just as hard as this winter has been and it is quite conceivable that there will be just as much and probably more seasonal unemployment next year.

Are we going to drift into another year and again see a million people in Canada affected directly by unemployment when, if we are to believe government speakers, if we are to believe the Minister of Trade and Commerce (Mr. Howe) and the Minister of Finance (Mr. Abbott), these things can be avoided as a direct result of government policy? There is nothing in the budget to indicate that the government proposes

The Budget-Mr. Noseworthy to take any measures now to avoid a repetition of the unemployment situation that we saw in the past winter. I think it is quite conceivable that, without interfering with private enterprise to which the government is so closely wedded, the government could undertake the establishment of secondary industries in those areas which are affected every year by seasonal unemployment. It is quite conceivable that the government, without interfering with private enterprise, could establish some such secondary industries which could be kept in operation during those months when there is seasonal unemployment in certain areas, and when private enterprise just cannot meet the need.

Another of the projects forming the policy of the government, and from which the government has departed, is the provision of low cost housing, houses that can be purchased or rented at prices that ordinary working-class people can afford. I have said before during this session that the houses being built today under the National Housing Act, and which range anywhere from a minimum of $8,000 up, do not come within the reach of the ordinary workingman's budget. It is hopeless for a man working for $40 or $50 a week, or in a great many cases for much less, to attempt to pay for an $8,000, $10,000 or $12,000 house during his lifetime. His income does not provide him with enough money to pay economic rent on such a home. Private enterprise has not entered this field. It is not profitable for private enterprise to build houses today at such prices as working-class people can afford to buy or to rent.

Great Britain has been experimenting during the post-war years with prefabricated houses. They now have no fewer than 14 different types all of which are reported to give good satisfaction to those living in them. They are experimenting with the different types in order to find which will be the most durable, which are the most comfortable, which require fewer man-hours in the factory and on the building site. In that way they are seeking to evolve the best possible type of house that can be constructed to meet the needs of the British people. There is no indication that our Liberal government is giving any leadership whatever in that field. Here is a field that has been vacated by private enterprise. No matter how considerate the government may be of private enterprise there is no conflict with it on the part of the government by giving some leadership and assistance in the promotion of housing projects to meet that need.

The Budget-Mr. Noseworthy

I want to call attention again to the question of immigration. When the government announced that it was establishing a new Department of Citizenship and Immigration the country expected to hear from the government that it had adopted some policy of bringing immigrants to this country. A great many people in Canada were particularly interested in bringing people of British stock to this country. That involves two or three things. In the first place we take it for granted there is no point in bringing people to Canada unless the government is prepared to stand by its policy adopted in the post-war years of maintaining full employment. There is no point in bringing immigrants to Canada if they are simply coming here to displace Canadians in their jobs. Before we adopt any such policy of bringing immigrants to Canada the first essential is that the government must have an established policy for maintaining full employment not only for Canadians but for those we bring into the country.

In the second place, if we are going to bring immigrants to Canada in any considerable numbers we must make some provision whereby these people can be housed. Again there is no point in bringing immigrants to Canada if they are to push Canadians out of the rooms, apartments and garages in which they are still living. If we are going to bring immigrants to Canada we must first be sure that we have a housing policy which is a going concern, and that housing accommodation will be available for the people who come to our shores. One measure that was expected of the government when the new department was created was that some means would be found to overcome the difficulty which British immigrants have concerning the amount of money they can bring to this country. England and the other sterling countries have found it necessary to limit drastically the amount of funds that may be taken out of their countries by emigrants. It was hoped that the government would be able to find ways and means whereby that difficulty could be overcome, possibly by the advance of credits against money held to the accounts of these people in their countries of origin, or by some other means. One thing is certain; many thousands of people in this country expected the government to set to work on that problem and at least seek a solution. There is nothing whatever in anything the government has brought down this session, in legislation, in the speech from the throne or in the budget, to indicate that the government is grappling with the problem or what they are doing to solve it.

fMr. Noseworthy.]

In conclusion, Mr. Speaker, I want to raise two points with respect to our present taxation structure. Last year we had some tax revision which gave certain companies further exemption from taxation. I wrote the Minister of National Revenue (Mr. McCann) a letter posing this question: What tax will a man, with a wife and no children and receiving a salary of $5,000, pay this year? The answer was that this man's tax would amount to $510. My second question was: what tax will a man with a wife and no children, who is in receipt of an income of $5,000 from dividends, be required to pay? The answer was:

If the same person were in receipt of similar income from dividends received entirely from taxable Canadian corporations his tax would amount to $114.

In other words the first man pays a tax of $510; the second man, in receipt of the same income coming entirely from taxable Canadian corporations, pays only $114. To me that does not seem right. I may be prejudiced; I do not get my income from dividends, but a great many people in this country are asking why a man on salary should be required to pay $510 while the man whose income is obtained from dividends should get off with $114.

I posed another question. In the tax legislation last year there was what is called a capital cost depreciation allowance. Equipment costing less than $50 is put in class 12; and I find that doctors, dentists and other professional men having equipment costing less than $50 may take 100 per cent depreciation. I asked whether a tradesman, a carpenter or plumber, who had equipment in the form of workmen's tools costing less than $50, could also take 100 per cent depreciation when making up his income tax return. The answer I received was:

... it would all depend upon the manner in which the tradesmen received their income. If they were in receipt of salary or wages no deduction would be allowed therefrom for the cost of any equipment. On the other hand, if they were in business-

Like a dentist or a doctor.

-they would be entitled to claim the capital cost allowance provided under the Income Tax Act.

I pose this question to the house: just where is the fairness in permitting a man in business for himself to claim 100 per cent depreciation on equipment used in his trade or business, while the man working for a salary or wages is not permitted to claim any depreciation at all on what may be identical equipment? Those are two features of our present tax structure that seem unfair, and I submit them to the minister or his assistant for an explanation.

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink
PC

Gordon Francis Higgins

Progressive Conservative

Mr. G. F. Higgins (St. John's East):

Mr. Speaker, during the course of the panegyric

he delivered yesterday, the hon. member for Churchill (Mr. Weaver) thanked God for the billion dollar mentality of the ministers opposite and remarked how glad he was that they were not penny wise and pound foolish, like the opposition. It is to that particular phrase, "penny wise and pound foolish", that I want to direct attention in connection with one particular phase of the operation of Trans-Canada Air Lines.

I believe all hon. members are proud of the way Trans-Canada Air Lines are operated. At times there may be some little disagreement as to certain engine functions, but as far as the safety of the aircraft is concerned, or the pilots and crew, there is never any question as to their reliability in every way. Trans-Canada has established a high reputation among the air lines of the world; of that there can be no doubt. Also there can be no doubt of the value of the tourist traffic to Canada; and instinctively associated with the tourist traffic is the word "American" because I believe it is the Americans we are chiefly interested in bringing to Canada. What is happening in the operation of the passenger planes of Trans-Canada Air Lines? Whether it is happening all over Canada I do not know, but certainly it is the case in the east. Any time there are spare seats, any time the plane is not filled with passengers, the empty seats of that passenger plane are used for the transportation of express.

I ask you to consider this matter of the planes that Trans-Canada are flying, with their highly trained and competent crews, on this air line of which we are so proud. When these planes are not completely filled with passengers, express packages are put on the seats not being used by passengers. They are not put in the luggage compartment. In some of these planes have been such articles as bird cages, milk churns and various types of boxes that might have contained anything. The captain of one of these planes is quite upset about the matter, and I have reason to believe he is not alone in that. I have been informed by him that at one time during a flight that was rather bumpy, at a time when there were a number of women passengers on the plane, some of these boxes that were piled on the seats contained flowers. I do not know, but I believe that is the case. They looked rather like coffins. One lady who was rather hysterical because of the bumpy trip suddenly started screaming, "Look at the coffins; no wonder we are going to die". The poor captain of the plane had a difficult time.

The reason for mentioning this matter is that I do not think it is fair to Trans-Canada Air Lines' reputation; I do not think it is

The Budget-Mr. Higgins fair to the personnel of these aircraft that such conditions should be allowed to continue. There is no question about being penny wise and pound foolish when one considers the small amount of money that is being saved by using the passenger space for cargo in that manner. It may well be that the reputation of Trans-Canada may be destroyed. It may be all right for Canadians to travel in that way, but when the great American tourist comes into this country, what explanation is going to be given to him if he is put in a passenger plane and luggage is piled on top of him? It is a question that may well be directed to those men with the billion dollar mentality. It certainly puts the crews in a difficult position. They do not like it, but they are told they have to do it. I say, Mr. Speaker, that is an extremely unfair position in which to put these highly trained personnel.

While on air matters, I should like to mention that at the moment the Gander field is restricted to the use of Boeings. These Boeings are large aircraft. As you know, practically all the major United States air lines have converted to Boeings, and it means that during the period of the restriction, whether it be three or four weeks, these air lines are practically unable to carry passengers through Gander. Gander has the highest landing fee of any airport in the world. A return I received last fall indicated that, so I presume the same situation still exists. At all events on planes up to

110,000 pounds the landing fee is $150, and it is $15 for each additional 10,000 pounds over and above that figure. When one recalls that every day the gulls are not walking on the fog some 1,400 passengers travel through Gander, the amount of revenue lost can easily be realized.

Returning to this question of being penny wise and pound foolish, I may say that revenue is being lost because the runways are not put in a condition to receive heavy traffic. I do not expect that to be done in a day, but it should certainly be remedied at the earliest possible moment. We must remember that the military planes of this day are rather heavy, as well as the commercial planes. Unless the runways at Gander are put in shape, that airport will not be able to handle any heavy military traffic. I understand that a survey has recently been made, but I do not definitely know the result of it. I am told that coating the runways would be sufficient to keep out the water; whether that is so, I do not know. We must remember that the Gander airport was built before these heavy planes that are now being used were thought of. This airport will have to be modernized.

The Budget-Mr. Higgins

There is one other point I should like to mention before I leave this subject. While returning home during the Easter recess I thought it was high time some form of patrol was set up, similar if you will to the present type of patrol on the ground that we know as the traffic patrol. At the major airports today large numbers of transport planes are attempting landings at the same time, and in addition a large number of private planes are flying around. These private planes are by no means fitted to obey the regulations which they are supposed to know. They are not all fitted with radio and the other apparatus that will enable them to land in all weather. I submit, Mr. Speaker, that an expenditure on that type of thing would be justified. Something in the nature of fast patrol planes should be available at the major airports of this country, because we have to remember that no matter how skilful the pilots are, no matter how fine our planes are, one joy-rider in a private plane can wreck the best pilot in the finest transport in the world.

When I suggest that to you, all we have to remember is the accident that happened last November at Washington when a large DC-4 was coming in for a landing, having been given permission by the tower. This plane had its flaps down and was levelling off, when a Bolivian pilot in a war surplus machine cut the plane in two. As a result fifty-five people died. Now, Mr. Speaker, that accident might easily have happened at Dorval airport outside Montreal instead of at Washington. I submit that it might be as well if we in Canada took time by the forelock, and set up something in the nature of a traffic patrol over our airports. It may be necessary also to restrict certain major airports to the use of transport planes. I do believe that something will have to be done, and done quite soon. It is not so many years ago when there were no traffic policemen on the road, and not so many years ago when we did not have to bother driving motorcars. It is necessary now to have traffic policemen to take care of the joy-riders.

I am only dealing with one or two subjects tonight, but I should like to deal with a problem arising out of the recent setting of bombs in planes. If possible I believe some form of X-ray machine should be set up to examine the baggage going into the plane. I know the air lines are not particularly anxious to adopt anything that would slow down their service, but after all we have to remember the safety of the general public. Even if such a possibility could not be worked out, the mere fact that it was being tried, the mere fact that the public did not know

that it had not been worked out, would I believe be a great deterrent and might discourage would-be murderers of that type.

There is one other matter with which I want to deal. I am going underground this time, Mr. Speaker. Some two or three days ago I asked the Minister of Trade and Commerce (Mr. Howe) a question with respect to the sale of 300,000 tons of Bell island ore. I am afraid that I got very little satisfaction from the reply. The situation is this. On Bell island there is a community with

2.000 men employed in the work of the iron mines. At the present time only 1,000 of these men are working, which means that

1.000 men are unemployed. There is a very serious situation on the island as a result of their not being able to sell iron ore.

On the 17th of March past, as good a day as any, I suppose, for tall stories, the Premier of Newfoundland announced that a sale of

300.000 tons of iron ore had been arranged. Why I am particularly interested in this matter is that the island is right in my own constituency, and there are a couple of thousand men who are continually writing me letters and asking me questions about it. Therefore at Eastertime rumour made the rounds and credit was given to the Minister of Trade and Commerce for this order. He was supposed to be the person who made the arrangements in connection with this ore. I am unable to get any answer from the Minister of Trade and Commerce, except that it is a matter between private interests that normally his department would not be interested in. In the hope that the minister may possibly at his leisure read these remarks I am repeating the question. I hope that he will remember the situation that exists down there and make a statement one way or the other, either that this order is going to be given or that he has no knowledge of it whatsoever, or at least put the minds of these people at rest, because what is happening down there now is that a number of young men are leaving Bell island and are trying to get work on the mainland. If a definite assurance were given that this order was going to be placed, that trouble would be all over. For that reason, Mr. Speaker, I would plead with the minister, if he has the opportunity of reading my few remarks tomorrow, to give thought to the fact and do as the Minister of Fisheries (Mr. Mayhew) did the other day. He gave us a very reassuring statement.

Before the Easter recess we were told by the Minister of Fisheries that if we did not talk so much about fish we might get more help. Perhaps we were talking too much, but at least during this present week he gave us a most reassuring statement. I am afraid

I have adopted the same tactics in addressing the Minister of Trade and Commerce on this matter in the hope that he will give us the same help that the Minister of Fisheries gave with respect to the sale of salt codfish.

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink
LIB

John Horace Dickey

Liberal

Mr. J. H. Dickey (Halifax):

Mr. Speaker, in introducing his budget, and in placing before the house the resolutions which we are now discussing, the Minister of Finance (Mr. Abbott) gave a very detailed and generally encouraging review of the national economy.

I am very glad to say, Mr. Speaker, I believe there are signs that the maritime provinces will in the next few years participate in this national prosperity to a degree which it has not always been our privilege to share.

In taking part in this debate this evening it might not be inappropriate for me to make a few remarks on the present economic condition of the maritime provinces, and of Nova Scotia particularly, and the outlook for the immediate future. Of necessity, Mr. Speaker, these remarks will be incomplete, and will be based only on the information which it has been possible for me to gather.

We in the maritime provinces, and in Nova Scotia, can look back over the last ten years or so as a period of pretty solid progress in our economic life. This progress and improvement in our economy has been marked as well by a quite striking change in attitude. There is a feeling of confidence and optimism in the people of the maritime provinces today that I do not think has been found in those provinces in a good many years. The existence of that feeling of confidence and optimism is a very promising sign for the future.

It is true, Mr. Speaker, that we still have to cope with the effects of certain historic disabilities which have in the past seriously retarded our economic development. It is also true that at the present time some of our basic industries are being affected by the dislocation of world trade and currency problems in a very distressing manner. However, in spite of this, the present situation is quite favourable and the outlook for the future can give us cause for some considerable optimism.

We in the maritimes, Mr. Speaker, are quite satisfied that our provinces by the sea are the pleasantest places in which to live, not only in this country but in any country of the world. I say that without any disparagement of the beauties and the advantages of many other parts of this country. But we have not been satisfied in the past that our young people have had opportunities for economic advancement in these maritime provinces equal to the opportunities enjoyed by young

The Budget-Mr. Dickey people in other parts of Canada and in the United States. The result of this economic pressure has been a progressive and a very considerable migration of the young people of the maritime provinces to the west and to the United States.

The other day I was struck by the remarks of the hon. member for Danforth (Mr. Harris), who spoke of the very large number of Canadians and descendants of Canadians in the United States. I am sorry to say that the great majority of these ex-Canadians and descendants of former Canadians have sprung from maritime stock. The hon. member for Danforth is quite satisfied that the national policy of tariffs and protection has been a good thing for Canada. From some points of view he is probably right, but I should like to point out to him that the national policy, which he considers to have been a success, was one of the great factors which caused that migration from and depopulation of the maritime provinces, which he now deplores.

In the period from 1871 to 1941 the population of the maritime provinces increased very slowly. The whole area did not participate in the tremendous expansion of the Canadian population which took place during those years. In that period the total population of Canada increased 212 per cent while the population of the maritime area increased only a mere 47-3 per cent. It was unavoidable that this area could not enjoy the economic stimulus of the great increase in population. The maritime area which, prior to confederation, had been the most economically sound and most prosperous of the British colonies of North America, suffered very severely in an economic way.

In each decade from 1871 to 1931 the maritimes failed by a very large margin to hold their natural increase in population. But in the decade from 1931 to 1941, while the natural increase was still not held, yet there was a change in trend and there was quite a marked increase in the rate of increase in population of the three maritime provinces. This trend has been continued, and in the decade from 1941 to 1951 it is expected that the maritime provinces, Nova Scotia particularly, will have had the greatest increase in population of any decade since 1867. This trend, I submit, is not only a symptom of better economic health in the maritime provinces, but it does provide some raw material for continuing development in the future.

The economy of the maritimes has traditionally been based on the primary industries of farming, fishing and lumbering. A very large proportion of the total production of

1894 HOUSE OF

The Budget-Mr. Dickey the three provinces has been from the products of the farm, the sea and the timber woods. I should like in this short summary to deal first, as briefly as possible, with the present situation in connection with these three basic industries.

Farming in Nova Scotia has always been mixed farming, with in some localities important emphasis on dairy farming and on fruit growing. The gross value of farm production in Nova Scotia has more than doubled over the last ten or twelve years. At the same time our farmers' costs have increased. In spite of this, the last ten years have been years of very considerable prosperity for our farmers. The production of poultry, eggs, meat, dairy products, hay and other mixed farming produce has been increased materially.

One very important factor in this farm prosperity has been the federal government's freight assistance policy in connection with the movement of western feed grains to eastern Canada. This essential policy has kept production costs for our farmers down to a level which enabled them to produce economically, and has prevented them in the last few years from being completely put out of business, in the poultry and meat-raising sections.

Some of the most fertile land in the maritime provinces is the dikelands or marshlands bordering the bay of Fundy and Minas basin. These are the storied meadows of Grand Pre, the home of Evangeline, and other similar areas which comprise in all over 45,000 acres of extremely fertile and easily tilled land. These lands were very largely diked and reclaimed from the sea many years ago by the earlier settlers and were farmed for many years with profit. However, during the years of depression and low farm prices it was impossible for these fields to be maintained, and in many instances valuable land went back to the sea.

It was recognized that if any real rehabilitation of farming and agricultural life in the maritime provinces was to be achieved, these lands would have to be recovered. I am glad to say that for some years a policy has been in operation to achieve this end. A beginning was made in 1944 with a program sponsored by the federal government, the provincial government and by the owners of the land. This policy was continued for several years and was very successful. However, it was recognized that such a policy was not going to be adequate to achieve the ends desired within a reasonable length of time.

For that reason this parliament adopted the Maritime Marshland Rehabilitation Act

of 1948. Under that act the federal government assumed the responsibility for the construction of dikes, aboiteaux and breakwaters in order to reclaim those lands from the sea. The provincial government and the owners have retained the responsibility for draining and preparing this land for use, and for bringing into operation a proper method of cultivation. A substantial start has already been made on a program whicli is expected to last for at least five years. An engineering and administrative organization has been set up in Amherst, and the expectation is that construction work to a value of about one million dollars will be carried out this summer.

This program is a good example of constructive and beneficial federal aid to agriculture in the maritime provinces, and I wish to express the satisfaction which we in the maritimes feel in the action of the federal government in co-operating with the provinces to the end that these very important marshlands should be brought again into proper cultivation.

The apple industry is a trouble spot in our agricultural picture. In just a few weeks now the great orchards of the Annapolis valley will be in full bloom, and the people of that valley will welcome visitors from far and near to celebrate with them their apple blossom festival. They will celebrate that festival in spite of the fact that war-born difficulties are still causing uncertainty and great concern for the future of the fruit growers in the Annapolis valley.

I am glad to say that a gradual improvement in the situation is being achieved, largely through the co-operative efforts of the federal government and the provincial government in assisting fruit growers to help themselves.

One important aspect of the activities being undertaken under federal and provincial auspices is the elimination of a large number of varieties which found a ready market in Great Britain before the war, but which cannot be marketed at the present time, and for which it is not expected any future market will be available. The federal government is making substantial contributions toward this process of eliminating unprofitable varieties.

Another means by which the industry is being assisted is through the provision of modern cold storage and packing facilities. Federal assistance to the amount of $200,000 has been made available and has been expended, in co-operation with the province, on the construction of eight cold storage plants and warehouses for the use of the apple industry. It is heartening to see that

this co-operation is having good results already. The rehabilitation of the industry will be a gradual process and may take some years, but the good effects are being felt already. In this connection I should like to quote from the Annapolis Valley Post Road, published at Kentville, Nova Scotia, the issue of March, 1950, as follows:

Kentville, March 15-Cold storage stocks of Nova Scotia apples have been in steadily rising demand since early in February and during the past week or two the plants have been hard pressed to keep up with the rush of orders. R. K. Bowlby told a general meeting of the apple board early this month. The sales manager stated that this increasing demand included requests for varieties which had been refused earlier in the season when heavy supplies of local apples were available to all markets from common storage. He stressed the important fact that the heavy and increasing demand prevailed although f.o.b. prices for Nova Scotia apples had been maintained at a higher level than those for western and central Canadian apples.

Mr. Bowlby stated that Nova Scotia McIntosh and Delicious had been selling respectively at f.o.b. prices 55 cents and 65 cents a bushel higher than British Columbia supplies of these varieties in eastern Canadian markets. "Furthermore," he said, "we could have sold a lot more apples in Number One and fancy grades of McIntosh and Delicious if these had been available."

The completion of this policy of the elimination of unprofitable varieties will ensure that in future years there will be no shortage of marketable varieties in the No. 1 and fancy grades to meet this extraordinary demand.

I should like to deal briefly with the great Atlantic fishing industry. I am glad to say that the prospects for the continued prosperity and growth of our Atlantic fisheries are as bright as they are for any other branch of our economy. Federal and provincial assistance to the industry have had no small influence in bringing about the present healthy condition and its outlook for the future.

The production of Atlantic sea foods in Nova Scotia reached an all-time peak in 1946 when the landed value was over $20,500,000. Since that time we have had to face drastically and rapidly changing market conditions as well as a decrease in the available supplies of certain important species. In spite of these facts the dollar value of production for 1949 was only 15 per cent below the peak of 1946.

We have had difficulty in retaining our traditional markets for dried and salted fish in the West Indies and Europe owing to exchange difficulties, but as those markets became unavailable to us new markets for fresh and frozen fish were developed in central Canada and central United States. The result was that a high volume of production was maintained. These new markets are capable of greater exploitation and expansion

The Budget-Mr. Dickey and as the currency problems of our old customers arc solved the previous demand for salted and dried fish should return with the result that our markets should be consider ably greater in the next few years.

There has been a realization in the industry that a steady demand can be built up only by providing reliable and constant supplies. The only means of ensuring constant supplies is the adoption of modern methods of catching and processing fish. The federal grants for the construction of modern fishing vessels have been of great assistance and the policy of increasing the number of trawlers and draggers to be licensed is setting the stage for further development in the industry.

The federal government is assisting materially in the construction of modern freezing and cold storage facilities. The important fisheries carried on from the port of Halifax and Lockeport are concentrated around freezing and cold storage facilities which have been either built or contributed to by the federal government. The federal government has constructed a modern pier at Louisburg, and this along with modern freezing and packing facilities to be constructed will provide a centre for important development in fishing at this port. A similar development is planned at Petite de Grat, also on Cape Breton island. The existence of these facilities and the demand that a steady supply of fish will create will be of benefit to the shore fishermen by providing them with a market for fresh fish which they have not always enjoyed in the past.

Quick transportation to market and proper methods of merchandising are essential to the development of our markets. The federal Department of Fisheries has been giving careful consideration to questions of this kind. They have carried out extensive and successful experiments in the design and operation of new refrigeration cars and the question of better and more appropriate equipment for retail outlets is receiving attention. The fate of the fishing industry in the last analysis depends Upon the condition of the product when it reaches the ultimate consumer and the Department of Fisheries is to be complimented on the manner in which it is attacking the problems of the fishing industry.

Lumbering is one of our ancient and basic industries. It is of twofold importance. It is important, first, as an industry and, second, because it provides a cash crop for many of our farmers on the pulpwood and pit prop side of the industry. Peak production was achieved during the war but the loss or restriction of the British market for softwood lumber has created great difficulties.

The Budget-Mr. Dickey The industry is tackling the difficult task of meeting the different requirements of the United States market, and some progress is being made in that regard. Well sustained demand in the home market because of the extent of construction work has been of great assistance. I should like to bring to the attention of the government the necessity of the employment of native woods in construction wherever possible. Particularly at the present time I do not consider that changes should be made to, for instance, metal windows and sashes in the eastern part of Canada. The lumber industry requires this outlet for its production at the present time, and experiments with new types of windows have not worked out successfully in the Atlantic climate.

I should say something of the mining industry and the production of minerals in the province. I do not propose to do so, however, except to point out that the production of coal in our Nova Scotia mines gives us one of the very important raw materials on which a great part of the industrial development of the province depends. The six million odd tons of coal produced by the maritime mines is the basis of the very considerable industrial developments in Sydney, Pictou county and other parts of the maritimes.

In the industrial field there has been a satisfactory expansion of activity over a wide field. I am glad to say that a considerable measure of diversification is becoming apparent. I should like to review briefly some of the more important and significant developments which have taken place in recent years.

The Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation, whose manifold operations are centred on Cape Breton island, is one of the main producers in Canada of coal and basic steel. It may interest hon. members to know that [DOT]this company is the largest single employer of labour in the whole dominion with the exception only of the two great railway companies. The steel industry of the Sydney area is one of the most important concentrations of heavy industry in Canada, and I am glad to say that there are prospects of great expansion.

Speaking at the annual meeting of the Sydney board of trade on April 12 Mr. L. A. Forsyth, K.C., who I may say is the new president of the company, a native Nova Scotian and the first Nova Scotian to head this great industrial enterprise, is reported in the Halifax Chronicle-Herald of the 13th of April as follows:

"The coal and steel industry of this province^ stands upon the threshold of a new era of prosperity

and of increasing importance as a national economic unit," L. A. Forsyth, K.C., Nova Scotia-born president of the vast Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation, told the annual meeting of Sydney board of trade tonight.

This company, Mr. Speaker, has undertaken a very important expansion program. They have just completed the construction of a $5 million coking plant which gives the corporation the most modern coking facilities of any steel company in the world. With the assistance of the dominion government the company has embarked on a $15 million program of modernization of its collieries all over the maritime provinces. This program calls for a 50-50 sharing of expenditure between the federal government and the corporation in the purchase and installation of modern cutting and loading machinery which will thoroughly mechanize the collieries of the company. This same program is being made available to the independent operators of the maritimes, and if it is brought to a successful conclusion the maritime mines will all be thoroughly mechanized and will be in a position to produce coal in much larger quantities and at a much more economic cost.

The discovery and development of very important deposits of iron ore in Quebec and Labrador has caused considerable speculation over the possible expansion of heavy industry in the maritime area. That is not a field in which I am in any sense an expert or upon which I can express an opinion, but it seems to me it is logical that the coal and limestone resources of the maritime provinces provide the nearest and most convenient location for the construction of facilities to process the products of the new iron mines. I understand that some informed opinion is to the effect that financial and trade barriers will be the only obstacles that will stand in the way of this development. If that is so, Mr. Speaker, I urge the government to give early and earnest attention to these questions so that if financial or trade barriers are going to be any deterrent to a logical development of this kind those problems can be met well in advance in order that the resources of the maritimes can be utilized in this way.

Other recent developments of an industrial nature in Nova Scotia have been more modest than the plans of the great Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation but they may not necessarily be less important in the long run. The list of developments underlines the extent of the diversification which has taken place. I shall not be able to go into this matter fully, but I should like to mention a few of the important developments which are under way. In April, 1949, just

a year ago, the Fairey Aviation Company of Canada Limited established its plant at Eastern Passage in Halifax county. This company is a subsidiary of the Fairey Aviation Corporation of Great Britain, and is undertaking the repair and modification of aircraft of all kinds, both military and civilian. The company is already operating at a very satisfactory rate. It is hoped that as time goes on they will be able-and this is their plan-to develop the design and construction of aircraft, particularly aircraft for use by the air arm of our fleet, as that is the branch of military aviation in which the parent company in England is engaged.

In addition to its aircraft interests the company plans to manufacture a line of plywood dinghies which have a very fine reputation in England for their sailing qualities. Already this company employs almost three hundred people, with a weekly payroll of about $12,000; and it is using local labour, which it has found to be excellent. In one year of operation the company has expended in the Halifax area for wages and supplies locally acquired over $600,000. It is using modern premises built during wartime for the Clark-Ruse Aviation Company. It is a waterfront site alongside the Eastern Passage air base.

The establishment of this company in a war-constructed plant reminds us that to a large extent post-war industrial expansion in this country has depended upon the availability of plants built during the war either by the government or with government assistance. I recall to the government that wartime necessities were considered to make it imperative that a great proportion of this construction be in the central provinces. Since the war new industries have been drawn to the central provinces because of the existence of those facilities and the labour force which had been built up around them. The few plants built in other provinces, such as Nova Scotia, have been used; but their number and type were very limited. During the war requests were made for the greatest possible decentralization of this development, but that was not found feasible. The cost of these war plants was borne by all the taxpayers of Canada, but the post-war benefits have not been equally enjoyed. I submit that this consideration provides a valid reason for the government giving very careful attention to the provision of all possible assistance to industrial expansion in areas which could not be looked after during the war.

One field in which this is possible and necessary, Mr. Speaker, is that of shipbuilding. Halifax Shipyards Limited and the

The Budget-Mr. Dickey other east coast yards are located in ice-free, year-round ports. These are ports which are essential to this country in wartime, and it is equally essential that they have adequate facilities for the construction and repair of all types of ships. These facilities should not be permitted to deteriorate, and their skilled tradesmen should not be lost, through lack of use during peacetime. Available work for the shipyards should be allotted with these considerations in view, and these companies should be placed in a position to maintain their equipment and personnel in order to make their contribution to the general economic life of the area. Halifax Shipyards Limited is now completing three large army transports being built for Argentina. This contract was obtained by open bidding in the world market just after the war. In the interim conditions have changed, so that now it is not possible for a Canadian shipyard to profitably compete for orders of this kind in the world market, and they cannot be expected to do so as long as present conditions continue. A start will soon be made on an $8 million anti-submarine vessel for the Royal Canadian Navy, and we are hoping that Halifax shipyards may have an early opportunity to bid on the new highway ferry which will be built for service between Yarmouth and the eastern United States. I submit to the government that further plans for construction and for the repair of government vessels. should be brought forward in order to maintain the essential activities of these shipyards.

A very interesting development in Halifax has been the establishment of the factory of Cossor (Canada) Limited. This company is an associate of the famous A. C. Cossor group of companies in England, who are leaders in the field of electronics. The company proposes to undertake the design and production of electronic equipment of all kinds.

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink
PC

Arthur Leroy Smith

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Smith (Calgary West):

Did they not chase the president out of that company?

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink
LIB

John Horace Dickey

Liberal

Mr. Dickey:

Not to my knowledge. This company is also carrying on research and development in the field of electronics. Already they have produced complex electronic training devices for the Department of National Defence, and are doing modifications, reconditioning and maintenance of marine radar, airborne radar and all other types of electronic equipment. This company manufactured the prototype of a television receiver, the first to be built in Canada, and it also has the prototype of a high quality radiophonograph.

The importance of an industry of this kind to a port like Halifax cannot be overestimated. Shipping of all kinds is installing

The Budget-Mr. A. L. Smith and using radar and other electronic equipment to an ever-increasing extent. Modern fishing vessels are employing electronic equipment to enable them to find and catch more fish; and the existence of this company in Halifax will enable this process to be carried on to an even greater degree.

I had intended to tell the house of a number of very important developments in smaller industries in the province, but I see my time is nearly up, so I shall content myself by saying that some very important developments are taking place along this line. All these developments add up to this, that a very considerable expansion has taken place in the industrial capacity of the province of Nova Scotia. Current industrial production is almost exactly fifty per cent of the total production of the province. That is very different to the situation that existed only a few years ago, when a very large proportion of our total production came from the primary and basic industries.

At the outset I pointed out that the economic probabilities for the maritimes in general and for Nova Scotia in particular were favourable, in spite of certain difficulties and dislocations which were affecting our basic industries. One important activity of the federal government which has, in my opinion, a very beneficial effect upon the maritime economy, is the co-operation of the federal government with other like-minded nations in the progressive removal of trade barriers throughout the world. The economy of the maritime provinces always develops most favourably under conditions of freer trade, and I urge the government not only to meet other governments half way, but to meet them more than half way in an effort to remove the shackling effects of tariffs and other obstacles to world trade.

I should like to compliment the government on the assistance it has already given to agriculture, fishing, mining and industrial development in the maritime provinces, and compliment the provincial governments as well on the co-operative efforts which they are carrying on with the federal government. These activities must be continued, and I can assure you, Mr. Speaker, that the Nova Scotia and maritime members will continue to press for additional activity in this field, in the knowledge that everything that is done to expand and improve the economy of the maritime provinces cannot fail but be of benefit to the economy of this country as a whole.

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink
PC

Arthur Leroy Smith

Progressive Conservative

Mr. A. L. Smith (Calgary West):

Mr. Speaker, I cannot let this opportunity pass without mentioning to you what a thrill it is to me to be permitted to speak at this time.

By that clock on the wall, it is now six minutes to eleven. I want to assure you, sir, that I appreciate what a wonderful thing it is for this country, that on a Tuesday night at this hour we should have every seat in the house occupied, some of them by two members, one sitting on the other's knee; all the ministerial benches filled-they need more room to expand of course-but they are all filled and the galleries are crowded. It is an inspiration to any young fellow like myself, and I therefore intend to fix up the whole country from one end to the other.

I cannot let what has just been said by the junior member for Halifax (Mr. Dickey) pass. He began quite well with the country of Evangeline. I listened, and I thought in a moment-I think Longfellow wrote that poem,-I should hear the wafting of those gentle noises from the murmuring pines and the hemlock that sit like the druids of old, and all that sort of thing. I thought we had a new druid-they were wise men-who would tell us something of great interest to the country. Before he finished I was through every back yard within fifty miles of the city of Halifax, and that is a long way from the murmuring pines and hemlocks. In fact, so far as the hon. member is concerned, they ended up in those marshes which the sea has claimed from his favourite, and my favourite, province of Nova Scotia.

The hon. member did say one thing that interested me a great deal, and in this I think I can help him. He talked about fish, and the difficulty experienced in obtaining markets for their fish. I want to assure him of this, that there is a wonderful market on his doorstep, and that is the parliamentary restaurant in which there has not been a decent bit of fish since this session began. If they would just get some fish up there, all the waves emanating from that and going across the country would make everybody fish conscious. We are fish conscious now, but for the opposite reason.

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink
CCF

Angus MacInnis

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.)

Mr. Maclnnis:

It-sounds like fishing to me.

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink
PC

Arthur Leroy Smith

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Smith (Calgary West):

I thought I heard the hon. member from the other coast saying it was fishing. He should be an excellent judge, because I have tried the fish from that part of the country, too. I know the salmon they have out there, and I love it in cans but not otherwise.

I should like to turn to some remarks-

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink
CCF

Stanley Howard Knowles (Whip of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation)

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.)

Mr. Knowles:

Try some Winnipeg goldeye.

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink
PC

Arthur Leroy Smith

Progressive Conservative

Mr. Smith (Calgary West):

I am sorry that I am getting so deaf I miss these opportunities.

I want to turn to a remark made by another speaker, and that is the gentleman from

Churchill (Mr. Weaver), who had me carrying things out in a wheelbarrow. I heard that much of his speech. On the 7th day of January he made a speech in Flin Flon. At that meeting he was asked why, in the House of Commons, he had voted against the allowance of union dues paid by labouring people in connection with their income tax. He made what I thought was a clever and yet naive reply. He said, "You know, those cabinet ministers down there are human, and if I had not voted with them in this, I would not be able to get anything for the constituency of Churchill". That is politics as it should be played; I think that is smart. Unfortunately in Flin Flon they also have telegraph instruments and newspapers.

I intend tonight, and I am quite safe in saying tonight, to discuss two subjects which you, sir, may regard as of minor importance. May I make this promise, that I will not tell you about anything in the city of Calgary or in the province of Alberta, but will endeavour

The Budget-Mr. A. L. Smith to confine my remarks to these two subjects which I think are of national importance. The first is the treatment of veterans of the old North West Mounted Police, today the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and the second is an effort to have the government remove the necessity of obtaining a fiat when a citizen, who is injured by the government, its agencies or companies, wishes to seek redress.

With that, sir, it being eleven o'clock, I move the adjournment of the debate.

Motion agreed to and debate adjourned.

Topic:   THE BUDGET
Subtopic:   ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF FINANCE
Permalink

BUSINESS OF THE HOUSE

LIB

Alphonse Fournier (Minister of Public Works; Leader of the Government in the House of Commons; Liberal Party House Leader)

Liberal

Mr. Fournier (Hull):

Mr. Speaker, tomorrow we shall continue this debate.

Topic:   BUSINESS OF THE HOUSE
Permalink

At eleven o'clock the house adjourned, without question put, pursuant to standing order. 1901



Wednesday, April 26, 1950


April 25, 1950