March 17, 1948

WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION

SIGNING AT BRUSSELS OP TREATY OF MUTUAL GUARANTEE

LIB

William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister; President of the Privy Council)

Liberal

Right Hon. W. L. MACKENZIE KING (Prime Minister):

Mr. Speaker, members of parliament will have already learned with satisfaction that a treaty of mutual guarantee was signed this morning at Brussels by representatives of the governments of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. This pact represents a partial fulfilment of the idea of a western European union put forward by the United Kingdom foreign secretary on January 22 last. This pact is far more than an alliance of the old kind. It is a partial realization of the idea of collective security by an arrangement made under the charter of the united nations. As such it is a step towards peace, which may well be followed by other similar steps until there is built up an association of all free states which are willing to accept responsibilities of mutual assistance to prevent aggression and preserve peace.

May I read, in this connection, two articles of the western union agreement:

Article III. The high contracting parties will make every effort in common to lead their people towards a better understanding of the principles which form the basis of their common civilization and to promote cultural exchanges by conventions between themselves or otherwise.

Article IV. If any high contracting party should be the object of an armed attack in Europe, the other high contracting parties will, in accordance with the provisions of article LI of the charter, afford the party so attacked all the military and other aid and assistance in their power.

Hon. members will, I am sure, also welcome the significant statement made to the congress of the United States at noon today by President Truman in which, referring to the Brussels agreement which had just been signed, he spoke of the determination of the United States to help those five western European nations to protect themselves.

The Canadian government has been closely following recent developments in the international sphere. The peoples of all free countries may be assured that Canada will play her full part in every movement to give substance to the conception of an effective system of collective security by the development of regional pacts under the charter of the united nations.

Topic:   WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION
Subtopic:   SIGNING AT BRUSSELS OP TREATY OF MUTUAL GUARANTEE
Permalink

COMMUNIST AGENTS

ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31

PC

John Bracken (Leader of the Official Opposition)

Progressive Conservative

Mr. JOHN BRACKEN (Leader of the Opposition):

Mr. Speaker, the Rrime Minister has just referred to the pact between five European nations guaranteeing mutual aid over a long period of time. I am sure that all members of the house will feel like congratulating those nations upon having reached such an agreement. I am aware, Mr. Speaker, that a statement of this kind by the Prime Minister is not debatable. I think that is unfortunate, because only the other day in this house some members asked for an opportunity to discuss matters relating to external affairs but the government did not find it expedient to allow that discussion. And a day or two ago I asked the Minister of Finance (Mr. Abbott) if he would, before Easter, be moving the house into committee of supply, which would give us an opportunity to discuss external affairs, but no such opportunity has yet been afforded. Therefore, Mr. Speaker, I ask leave, seconded by the hon. member for Calgary West (Mr. Smith) to move the adjournment of the house under standing order 31 to discuss a definite matter of urgent public importance, namely, the menace to the peace of Canada arising from the activities in this country of communist agents-a .matter calling for immediate attention at this time because:

(a) Canada is regarded by the communists as of supreme strategic importance in the communist bid for global domination;

(b) Communist agents, some of them under diplomatic immunity, some of them Canadian citizens, have succeeded in corrupting officials of the public service of this country;

Communist Agents in Canada

(c) Canada is regarded by the communists as a vital source of information respecting the development of the atomic bomb;

(d) Communist agents are boring into the labour organizations of this country with a view to wrecking recognized labour organizations and undermining industrial peace and crippling the productive capacity of the country both in peace and in the event of war;

(e) Recent events in Europe, especially in Czechoslovakia and Finland, can leave no reasonable doubt that the aim of communism is to destroy democracy, wherever it exists, and substitute for it puppet police states.

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
LIB

James Horace King (Speaker of the Senate)

Liberal

Mr. SPEAKER:

If the hon. gentleman will look at standing order 31 he will see that it reads in part as follows:

Leave to make a motion for the adjournment of the house (when made for the purpose of discussing a definite matter of urgent public importance) must be asked after the ordinary daily routine of business.

I would suggest that the hon. member wait until we reach that stage.

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
PC

John Bracken (Leader of the Official Opposition)

Progressive Conservative

Mr. BRACKEN:

I was advised, Mr. Speaker, that this was the proper time to make the motion, but I am in your hands.

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
LIB

James Horace King (Speaker of the Senate)

Liberal

Mr. SPEAKER:

After the ordinary daily routine.

[Later A

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
LIB

James Horace King (Speaker of the Senate)

Liberal

Mr. SPEAKER:

We have before us a motion moved by the leader of the opposition (Mr. Bracken). Standing order 31(3) reads that the mover-

-then hands a written statement of the matter proposed to be discussed to Mr. Speaker, who, if he thinks it in order, and of urgent public importance, reads it out and asks whether the member has the leave of the house. If objection is taken, Mr. Speaker requests those members who support the motion to rise in their places and, if more than twenty members rise accordingly, Mr. Speaker calls upon the member who has asked for leave.

Mr. Bracken moves, seconded by Mr. Smith (Calgary West), for leave to move the adjournment of the house under standing order 31 to discuss a definite matter of urgent public importance. Is it the pleasure of the house that the hon. gentleman have leave to proceed?

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
?

Some hon. MEMBERS:

Carried.

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
LIB

James Horace King (Speaker of the Senate)

Liberal

Mr. SPEAKER:

The hon. gentleman will proceed.

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
PC

John Bracken (Leader of the Official Opposition)

Progressive Conservative

Mr. JOHN BRACKEN (Leader of the Opposition):

Mr. Speaker, I have raised this issue today to emphasize the seriousness of the communist menace to Canada as well as

to the world and to give the government the opportunity to tell us what it is doing and what it proposes to do in every department of government having any relationship to this question. I think hon. members on all sides of the house want to do everything that can legitimately be done to stamp out this menace.

Today is March 17, 1948. In addition to being March 17 it is the day on which the President of the United States made a very important statement to congress; it is the day on which in Brussels Mr. Bevin made a very important statement respecting the European five power pact, the matter the Prime Minister mentioned here today; and it is only two days following a similar important statement relating to communism by the Prime Minister of Great Britain.

I want to summarize briefly a part of what Mr. Truman said to congress this morning. We heard it over the air just a few hours ago. I will mention only three things he said bearing on this subject. First, he said it was important speedily to complete the European recovery program as the most telling contribution to peace which congress could make in a time of critical importance; second, he urged the prompt enactment of universal training, because, to use his words, "we have paid a terrible price in the past for unpreparedness"; and third, he urged the immediate enactment of universal training for all men and selective service for the regular forces. And he added these words: "We must be prepared to pay the price of peace or we will pay the price of war". Then he went on to give a long indictment of communism and of the relationship of one great country-Russia -to that doctrine.

At the same time, in another country another statesman dealt with a matter relating to the same question. Mr. Bevin spoke over the air from the Belgium foreign ministry in Brussels, and briefly among other things, this is a part of what he had to say. He said they had agreed upon the creation of a permanent consultative council among five nations for a period of fifty years. Secondly, they had agreed to guarantee mutual assistance to each other against aggression by either a resurgent Germany or any other power. I presume the question of a resurgent Germany was agreed to because France particularly would want an agreement on that. I presume the reference to any other power had to do with Russia, that great power which is moving westward over Europe all too fast for our comfort. Thirdly, he said they had agreed to the mutual exchange of information and assistance in economic and cultural matters.

Communist Agents in Canada

This very day that we are gathered here President Truman spoke to the American people as I have indicated, and Mr. Bevin spoke to the world indicating how five nations in western Europe had1 agreed' to stand together for half a century to face the future. Only two days ago, on the 15th of this month, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, as reported in the New York Times announced to the House of Commons the cabinet's decision to transfer communists, fellow travellers and fascists in any government work vital to the national security. I do not know what he means by "transferring them", but at least it is an effort on the part of the British government to do something to face up to the communist menace.

I have mentioned the president of the great nation to the south of us; I have mentioned Bevin and the council of five western European nations; I have mentioned what Premier Attlee of Britain had to say.

What is being said in our own country with respect to this matter? I am sure I do not need to say to hon. members what has been said for some time now. One paper at least has taken the lead in dealing with it. I am referring to the Windsor Star. It has carried dispatches for some time now showing the extent to which this revolutionary cult of international communism is growing in Canada. These dispatches are now being copied, carried and favourably commented upon by many other metropolitan papers in Canada. I will take only a minute to indicate the content of some of them.

This is what the Windsor Star of March 8 carried: "Communist threat grows. Canadian fifth column waits." In a later issue we find the following: "Time to strike. Revolutionary cult of international communism in Canada has gained widespread and dangerous power." I shall make no more than a very brief comment on the content of these statements.

On March 10 the following appeared: "Loyal Canadians duped to aid Red fifth column." In comment a little farther down the article the following appears:

Public apathy is the most valuable asset the communist conspirators have. More desirable for their treacherous purposes than soap-box orators or drawing-room radicals are the plain people who shrug their shoulders by the hundreds of thousands and say to one another, half believing and half wishful: "It can't happen here."

I shall mention only one or two other comments. In the issue of March 11 the

following appears: "Red hierarchy traced

from Moscow to here." Then this comment follows:

It is a diabolically ingenious machine of which each separate tiny part is a complete whole, able to function by itself.

In the issue of March 12 the following appears: "Labour battles threat of Red rule or ruin." I shall not take the time to elaborate on any of these. Another one is as follows: "Loopholes in law admit Europe's Red saboteurs."

The defence against the communist threat is, as I said, being taken up by other metropolitan papers across Canada. Among others, the Winnipeg Free Press, and I am told the Calgary Herald and nearly all the leading metropolitan papers, are taking up this question and pointing out its seriousness.

In my motion I referred to four or five reasons why we should give this matter some consideration in this house. Let me refer to these specifically for a moment.

I have said that Canada is regarded by communists as of great strategic importance in the communist bid for global domination. Today Canada and the United States are giving a great deal of attention to our arctic defences of this continent. What does that mean? It must mean, if it means anything, that we regard that territory as a possible future cockpit of a major world conflagration. I mention that only to emphasize the importance of this question.

Secondly, I said that communist agents, some of them under diplomatic immunity, some of them Canadian citizens, have succeeded in corrupting officials of the public service of this country. We all know the sordid tale of what took place in this country within the last two or three years, and I do not need to repeat it here. But have we any reason to believe that these efforts have been discontinued? The answer is that we obviously have not. The evidence of infiltration generally is clearer today that it has ever been before.

I pointed out, again, that Canada is regarded by the communists as a vital source of information respecting the development of the atomic bomb. One needs only to mention two names out of many, one of them a British scientist working in this country, another a Canadian scientist working here, both having to do with the atomic bomb. Today they are both in the penitentiary.

I said they were working on the atomic bomb and they were both convicted of unlawfully giving information to a foreign nation with respect to that secret bomb. I have no

Communist Agents in Canada

doubt that steps have been taken to try to see that communists and their fellow travellers are not closely associated with the atomic energy enterprise in Canada, but none of us doubt that communists are making every effort to find out what they can and to transmit it to another country that would like to have it.

I said further that communist agents are boring into the labour organizations of this country with a view to wrecking recognized labour unions and undermining industrial peace, crippling the productive capacity of the country not only in peacetime but particularly in the event of war. Perhaps that is the most dangerous thing that is facing the internal peace of Canada, a danger that is facing the whole future of this country, the infiltration of communists into the organized labour groups of the country.

At this time I wish to compliment organized labour on their efforts to date to purge themselves of communist agents. And I wish to say to the government, to this house and to the Canadian people that organized labour needs every assistance it can get from the parliament of Canada in its efforts to save itself and to save us from this kind of infiltration.

Then I referred to what has happened recently in Czechoslovakia and what is happening at this very moment in Finland, two nations in the way of the western movement of communism in Europe. Czechoslovakia has been scuttled from within. The methods of Hitler are seen to be here again right before our eyes. Finland is in a situation somewhat similar to that in which Czechoslovakia found itself a few weeks ago. While the technique in the instance of Finland is a little different, the objective is the same. And it looks as if the end will be the same. Finland is now engaged in so-called negotiations with the fear of military occupation at her elbow, the fear of military occupation by a large power predetermining every move of that little nation.

I now wish to say something about communism itself. Communism is the most widely discussed topic in the world today. For the vast majority it has a vague shapelessness which inspires some with panic and permits others to hold it in blind adoration. If we are successfully to control it we must understand its true nature and purposes.

Communism, in my judgment, is just a blood brother of nazism and fascism. Under all three the individual has no rights against the state and no purpose on earth but to serve the state. Communism is essentially nihilistic; it is a creed of destruction. It was conceived

in hatred, it is being nurtured in violence. It has been brought to maturity in Russia where it is being used as a weapon of world conquest.

I have not referred to any nation critically in this connection. I have referred to communism wherever it is found. I wish, however, to quote the views of two men who have had exceptional opportunity to understand it. They mention a foreign nation by name and I pass it on as their view. One of them, whose position is made clear, is the American ambassador to Poland from 1944 to 1947, A. B. Lane. He saw communism at work and his opinion was stated as follows:

There will be no turning back on the part of Stalin. On the contrary, he will proceed on his policy, which was also that of Hitler, of seizing control, state by state, until he obtains world domination or until he meets the effective resistance of a stronger power.

The other view, by one of the great workers for world peace, Sir Norman Angell, winner of the Nobel peace prize, warns us about the alternatives in these words:

If w'e in the west adopt a policy of indefinite retreat before Russian power, we must face now just what that involves . . . When it is on top of us, it will have attained a momentum too great to stop. A policy which, adopted early could have prevented war, fails of prevention when adopted late.

Let me now make one comment on the matter I referred to a moment ago, namely the fifth column aspect. We must not forget that the communists, together with their brothers the nazis, have developed a new weapon, the fifth column. That is the most hateful of weapons; it is one which drives the people of a nation against themselves, splits countries in two, sets brother against brother, and produces something of the condition we have seen in parts of Europe.

I wish to make two or three other observations in closing. What is it our responsibility now to do? Without going into details I suggest, first that this nation, in association with other nations must be strong-strong economically and collectively-so strong collectively that no other nation will dare to attack us. That is the immediate responsibility of those who would guard against this danger. That is the primary purpose of the main principles of the united nations.

Second-and this applies particularly at home-we must serve better here than communism can serve anywhere. What is the defence against the attack of communism at home, the infiltration of our labour organizations and every other device that is being used? The best defence at home is for us in this parliament and those in provincial

Communist Agents in Canada

legislatures and in municipal councils to see that our communities are served better than communism can serve their people. Faith in our capacity to do that may have been wavering in recent years. I suggest that it is time we had a new and revitalized faith in that respect. I have confidence, and I am sure everybody in this house has it too, that we can serve society better than communism can. Let us stand up and demonstrate that fact so that communism cannot grow in Canada and so that it cannot expand in Europe.

Third, today we must help other nations to re-establish themselves after the tremendous sacrifices they have made in war. Particularly is this the case with respect to our customers in western Europe. We have every moral, economic and political reason for giving to the extent of our capacity to help our customers and others over there to re-establish themselves. Otherwise they cannot resist the pressure that is now upon them.

I have mentioned .that we must be strong, that we must serve better and that we must help our customers to re-establish themselves. Fourth, we must help other nations to help themselves. The great nation beside us has been left with the responsibility of accepting the economic leadership of the world; I refer to the United States of America. It is our responsibility to associate ourselves with that great nation on this continent and accept our share of the moral and economic leadership of the world. That responsibility has fallen to this continent through no particular credit to ourselves, but perhaps partly as a result of accident or as a result of geography, as well as the result of war. But here in Canada we are beside the strongest economic unit in the world-I am referring to the United States. We are a sister nation, smaller, but similar in many ways, believing in many of the same things and having many of the same advantages. We too must carry our share of the responsibility, as I said by sharing in giving moral and economic leadership to the world beside this great nation I have referred to-the United States. This nation cannot feed the rest of the world and cannot bring prosperity to every section of the world by giving to them. But the United States of America, this country and others who think in the same way can give leadership to other nations to help themselves in the future.

I have only one other thing to say, Mr. Speaker. As I said in my opening remarks, I raised this question to re-emphasize the seriousness of the menace we are facing in this country and throughout the world, and to ask

the government, either now or on an early occasion, to state what it is doing in every department that has any relation to this question, and what it proposes to do. I think that the government and this parliament owe that to the Canadian people. I think the government owes it to the Canadian people to say what it is doing and what it proposes to do to stamp out this threat to Christian democracy. That is what it is. The struggle today is between two ideologies-communism on the one hand and Christian or other democracies on the other. Communism is the major threat in the world today.

In this connection I have a suggestion to make to the government. We all know that the government want to get through some of the measures that are now before us. On behalf of this party I should like to assure the government that, with regard to all these matters which are pressing today, we will help them to see they get through before next Wednesday or Thursday. That does not mean to say that we shall not talk about them as we go along, because that is our job. That is what we must do and that is what we have no choice but to do. Some of these measures we recognize must be put through. That is not so perhaps with all of them. But with respect to those considered to be essential to pass before the Easter holidays, we shall help the government to see that they are passed. But I seriously suggest that the government ought to provide one day or at least part of a day for the discussion of foreign affairs, and particularly of this question.

Let me say this, Mr. Speaker. I have raised this question today in no sense of narrow partisanship. This question and these times are too serious for that. I wish to say just one sentence in closing. It is with respect to the position of this party regarding communism. I can do it most briefly in these words. This party is in favour of, and will give its wholehearted support to, the government's taking every step possible within its legislative competence, to halt the march of communism in this country.

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
LIB

William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister; President of the Privy Council)

Liberal

Right Hon. W. L. MACKENZIE KING (Prime Minister):

I should like to be the first, Mr. Speaker, to thank my hon. friend the leader of the opposition (Mr. Bracken) for the promise he has just made that he and his party will do all in their power to assist the government in helping to defeat the menace of communism. There is no menace in the world that is greater. I think I have stated that repeatedly before. There is no comparable menace in the world. We all must face it in common, with all the strength, resource and

Communist Agents in Canada

power it is possible for us to muster. I am quite sure that when other hon. gentlemen speak for the other parties opposite they will be equally prepared to give the government the assurance that has just come from the Leader of the opposition.

As the house will have noted, I have taken no exception whatever to my hon. friend having brought up this question as he has. But I do take exception to his having said, or implied, that he was bringing it up at this moment because the government had denied to hon. gentlemen opposite the right to discuss external affairs before this time of the session. For my part I think my hon. friend brought the question up at this moment because of the exceptional interest aroused as a result of the statement which was made this morning by the president of the United States.

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
?

Some hon. MEMBERS:

No, no.

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
LIB

William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister; President of the Privy Council)

Liberal

Mr. MACKENZIE KING:

It is perhaps fortunate, because of the President's statement, that he has brought it up at this time. Naturally the question will be receiving more attention in various parts of the world today as a result of that address. But may I point out, as I have more than once before, that in arranging the business and the order of business of this session I did confer with hon. gentlemen opposite. I recently made a statement in this house as to what we as hon. members were agreed as the best procedure to adopt in order to get through the business as rapidly as possible. I need not go over what we were agreed upon in regard to giving the emergency measures and the debate on the address first consideration. When I was seeking to carry out that arrangement in planning the business of the house from day to day. I was not imposing my will on this house. I was seeking to carry out what had been agreed to by the house itself and by members of all parties. If external affairs has not been reached before this time it is because we have not yet completed the program upon which we had agreed. Hon. members know, or at least the leaders of the parties opposite know, that only a day or two ago I discussed with the leaders quite frankly the matter of the remainder of the business to be dealt with before the Easter recess, and I informed the house of the result of the conference we had and the agreement we had reached. At the time of that conference, there was no suggestion that external affairs should be given precedence between now and the Easter recess. I think it was felt by all that external affairs questions would come up very soon after the Easter recess and that we would have, not a sudden debate on a great question, sprung

without any notice whatever, but an opportunity for a full discussion in this house, perhaps running for days.

Now I say to my hon. friend that the government has been given no notice of his intention to bring up this question at this time. He asks what has been done in this direction and in that. Had I had any previous knowledge that such was desired I could, for example, have brought him today data answering some of the questions he asked, particularly in relation to what steps have been taken over the past year or two to make certain that the public service was not being infiltrated by those holding communist views. I could have made a statement at some length on that matter, but at this moment I am not going to attempt to go into details of that kind.

May I just remind this house, and Canada itself, that, after all, ours was the first government in the world to expose the activities of communists in the public service, and I may add I was the first to stand up in this parliament and indicate how appallingly dangerous the possibilities were. I did not confine what I had to say to parliament here. I made it a point to visit the United States personally and to confer on this danger with the highest authorities in that country; I made it a point to visit Britain and confer with the highest authorities in the United Kingdom. In both countries I disclosed what we had discovered' in Canada with respect to communist infiltration into the public service, and the dangers to which it was likely to lead and to methods that were being employed. And at this moment I do not forget that my colleague, the then Minister of Justice, the present Secretary of State for External Affairs (Mr. St.. Laurent), was taken pretty severely to task because it was alleged that, in authorizing the steps necessary, he was interfering with individual liberty. He took the only possible immediate steps it was effective to take at that time. I do not forget, either, that we on this side have since heard more about our alleged interference with individual rights and human liberties than about almost anything else, because of the action we took to suppress communism.

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
?

Some hon. MEMBERS:

No, no.

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
LIB

William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister; President of the Privy Council)

Liberal

Mr. MACKENZIE KING:

Well, I listened respectfully to the leader of the opposition. I hope hon. gentlemen opposite will listen equally respectfully to me.

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
PC

Karl Kenneth Homuth

Progressive Conservative

Mr. HOMUTH:

Stick to the facts.

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink
PC

Arza Clair Casselman (Chief Opposition Whip; Whip of the Progressive Conservative Party)

Progressive Conservative

Mr. CASSELMAN:

He was non-political.

Communist Agents in Canada

Topic:   COMMUNIST AGENTS
Subtopic:   ACTIVITIES IN CANADA-MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT UNDER STANDING ORDER 31
Permalink

March 17, 1948