May 16, 1946

LIB

James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. GARDINER:

The students will be temporary while training. A number are being trained for this work.

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PC

Robert James Henderson

Progressive Conservative

Mr. HENDERSON:

Up in Lambton county, on the shores of lake Erie, we grow corn for our silos, for husking and feeding purposes. A

few years ago we had a rigid corn-borer inspection. A new inspector was appointed and he started out as new brooms always do, the result being that five or six years ago we had a rigid inspection. But when the war came on we slipped a little, and for the last year or two we have not had a corn-borer inspection. The result is that the corn-borer is increasing quite rapidly. What is being done to restore the corn-borer inspection and to control this pest, if possible?

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LIB

James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. GARDINER:

There has been some difficulty in getting staff in connection with the* work that is being done to control the corn-borer. I think it would be interesting if I read this statement on the European corn-borer :

The European corn-borer continues to be a serious pest of corn in Ontario and southern Quebec. During the season of 1945 this insect also made one ol its periodic invasions into New Brunswick, causing serious losses to corn, particularly in Carleton county. The development of a two-generation strain of the corn-borer in southwestern Ontario is threatening not only to complicate the control measures but increase the seriousness of the pest.

The normal single generation life-history of the insect is well known. The adult moths emerge from corn and other host plant refuse, begin flying and laying eggs in July. The larvae hatching from these eggs bore into the stalks and cobs of corn, feeding there until mature. They spend the winter in the host plant and weed refuse, pupate in the spring and emerge as adults early in July. The two-generation strain is not so well known. The first generation adults emerge in June and infest young corn plants, the larvae mature and pupate the same season. The second generation adults emerge late in the summer and infest the ripening corn.

In other words, a new variety of pest has appeared recently and is causing some difficulty in handling the situation. I am sorry I have no information As to why the inspector has not been on the job in Lambton county, other than that we have had difficulty in maintaining a competent staff.

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PC

Gordon Knapman Fraser

Progressive Conservative

Mr. FRASER:

In Kansas and other states where they were bothered with the corn-borer they maintained a patrol of the highways and stopped and searched all cars to make sure that they were not carrying com from the infested areas into free areas, and I understand that this helped greatly in eliminating the corn-borer. Something along that line will have to be done here.

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Item agreed to. Science service- 11. Forest entomology, $721,916.


SC

James Alexander Marshall

Social Credit

Mr. MARSHALL:

What is the distinction

made between temporary assistants and wage earners?

Supply-Agriculture

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LIB

James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. GARDINER:

The temporary assistants are persons taken on through the civil service commission to fill certain positions which have not yet been made permanent. The wage-earners are taken on by the day.

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PC

John Alpheus Charlton

Progressive Conservative

Mr. CHARLTON:

There is an increase in the expenditure for buildings and land. Are new forestry stations being established, and is this increase for buildings and equipment?

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LIB

James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. GARDINER:

The increase arises from the necessity to build a laboratory at a cost of $150,000 at Sault Ste. Marie near the headquarters of the research centre for the study of forest insects in which to study the importance of insect diseases in the control of forest insects, with a view to the importation of foreign diseases or the exploitation of local diseases in the control of forest insect pests in general, in Canada, and also at the moment, in the possible control of the spruce budworm. It is absolutely impossible to use the forest insect laboratory at Sault Ste. Marie for these studies because the 'whole building might become infected with forest insect disease germs and the entire basic studies ruined and the building even abandoned for biological work.

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PC

John Alpheus Charlton

Progressive Conservative

Mr. CHARLTON:

There is another item under miscellaneous, $10,000, in which there is an increase. Will the minister explain that?

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LIB

James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. GARDINER:

This increase arises from the necessity to provide for unforeseen expenditures in an expanding service in scientific investigational work in nine forest insect labora-ties throughout Canada where, a*t any time, the whole investigation may take an unexpected turn requiring unanticipated outlays of material consequence. Unfortunately, estimating for a research programme is vastly different from estimating for a factory production programme, and funds to meet emergencies are crucial, upon occasion, to exploiting the advantage of the moment, evanescent as they are so often in scientific research work. The point here is that every season is somewhat different and biologically important incidents may occur in one season which may not be encountered again for years; hence the importance of having available an item to make possible taking advantage of the favourable opportunity. This explains the remark I made a few moments ago in answer to an hon. member. The fact is that we must have money voted if we are to be able to spend it. Disease may break out somewhere and there must be a fund on which to draw for emergency work.

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PC

Lewis Elston Cardiff

Progressive Conservative

Mr. CARDIFF:

There is an increase in salaries. Is that due to an increase in staff, or are salaries being raised?

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LIB

James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. GARDINER:

This is entirely an increase in staff.

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CCF

Percy Ellis Wright

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.)

Mr. WRIGHT:

What has been the experience in spraying from aeroplanes for the spruce budworm? Is the dominion carrying on this work, or the provinces?

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LIB

James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. GARDINER:

It is carried on by the province, but we have information on it.

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PC

Charles Elwood Stephenson

Progressive Conservative

Mr. STEPHENSON:

With regard to

travelling expenses, are these mostly car expenses, and what is the mileage paid? How is that worked?

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LIB

James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. GARDINER:

It is railroad and car expenses, but the greater part is car, and the rate is nine cents a mile.

In answer T.o a question that was asked with regard to control of forest insects by spraying from aircraft, I may say this. The application of concentrated sprays containing DDT from aircraft was first attempted in Canada in 1944. In that year, in cooperation with the Ontario department of lands and forests, several acres of balsam and spruce forest in Algonquin park, Ontario, were sprayed, plane owned and operated by the United States department of agriculture being employed. The results were sufficiently satisfactory to justify further experiments in 1945. Three separate spraying projects were conducted, all directed against the spruce budworm. At Algonquin park, ten experimental plots of ten acres each were sprayed in early May to determine the relative effeetivness of various dosages of DDT. In the Kakabonga region, Gatineau valley, Quebec, several experimental plots were sprayed between May 16 and June 14; the results from each series of sprays, employing varying dosages of DDT and solvent, were carefully checked by means of population studies taken in the sprayed plots and in adjacent unsprayed areas. The studies suggest that the most effective time to apply the spray is during the period in which the larvae are feeding on the foliage of the new growth. In the case of large-scale operations, however, when time is an important factor, spraying may be conducted in the needle-mining and bud-feeding stages but with increased dosages.

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PC

Charles Elwood Stephenson

Progressive Conservative

Mr. STEPHENSON:

I asked the minister a question a moment ago. with regard to travelling expenses and he stated that a rate of nine cents a mile was paid. Do these men own their own cars?

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LIB

James Garfield Gardiner (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. GARDINER:

Most of the cars that are driven by our employees are government-owned, and only when a man drives his own ear is the 9-cent rate paid, the actual expense of operating the car.

Export Credits

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CCF

Joseph William Burton

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.)

Mr. BURTON:

With reference to spraying for spruce budworms, has the department considered testing the use of chemicals?

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May 16, 1946