April 12, 1945

NAT

Gordon Knapman Fraser

National Government

Mr. FRASER (Peterborough West):

Are

these new cars sold only to doctors?

Topic:   DEPARTMENT OF MUNITIONS AND SUPPLY
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LIB

Clarence Decatur Howe (Minister of Reconstruction; Minister of Munitions and Supply)

Liberal

Mr. HOWE:

For essential services. The

pool is getting very small now, and we must protect our essential services.

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NAT

Thomas Langton Church

National Government

Mr. CHURCH:

Coming from one of the principal industrial districts of Canada, I wish to say a few words in connection with this department. I appreciate what it has done during the war. I think every Canadian rejoices in the fact that Canada has become such a highly industrialized country and has made such a great contribution. It is true that some mistakes have been made, but mistakes are bound to occur in every war.

I wish to refer briefly to four matters: coal, power, housing and reconstruction. I have had no politics since the war started, except the winning of the war; and I do not know of anyone on this side of the house who has had any politics. I can say to my hon. friends on this side of the house that it was the Conservatives who first advocated a national fuel supply, and it was the Conservatives who were responsible for the Duncan commission and report. I remember the debate in this house in the middle twenties, lasting two days, on my resolution regarding constitutional, cabinet and parliamentary reform; and within a few days the late minister of justice, Mr. Lapointe, announced that he was appointing a royal commission to go into these matters as they concerned the maritime provinces.

I come now to the coal question. I lived through" the last war, and I saw the grave dangers that could arise through scarcity of coal. From the Conservative benches I brought the matter to the attention of the house immediately after my election for the then constituency of North Toronto, which at that time took in most of the city of Toronto north of Bloor street, from the Don almost to the Humber. My proposal then was for a national coal supply for this country, and that matter was discussed in the house for six or seven years in succession. The first debate took place on Monday, March 19, 1923, when

the Conservatives proposed through me the policy which is at present the policy of hon. gentlemen opposite, althpugh at that time they opposed it for four or five years. The two great central provinces of Ontario and Quebec for many years depended at first for fuel upon the wood cut in the northern parts of the provinces and some peat. Then, with the development of the country generally they used anthracite coal largely in these provinces, and later at country fairs and exhibitions stoves were exhibited and anthracite coal came [DOT] to be used.

I have always advocated a national coal supply. I saw the trouble we had in regard to coal during the last war. I remember when it was sold a bag at a time; that was all the fuel you could get. Before the United States came into the last war we were pictured in the great newspapers of that country as the country of the snows, as a country sitting on the sidelines and begging for a lump of coal. We were looked upon as a Lazarus, trying to beg for a few bits of coal, while at the same time we were exporting power to the United States. The first resolution moved and considered for three days, March 19, 1923, in connection with a national coal supply provided for a national policy, under which no part of Canada would be left dependent upon the United States. It requested that the house should immediately consider the initiation of an all-Canadian and British coal supply, in the best interests of Canada. A committee of the house was appointed, presided over by the present chairman of the royal commission on coal, at that time an able young lawyer and now Mr. Justice Carroll of the supreme Court of Nova Scotia. That committee reported favourably to the house, with the result that after three or four years a subsidy was proposed of SI a ton on coal coming from the maritimes.

In connection with the harbour improvements the late prime minister of Great Britain, Mr. Stanley Baldwin, built a large industry at Ashbridge's Bay for the manufacture of granite plates and things of that kind. This coal policy was supported by a great newspaper in Toronto, the Evening Telegram, which at that time reported the proceedings of the house almost verbatim. I suppose we cannot expect anything like that, owing to war conditions. That newspaper did a great deal to make the people of this country realize the necessity of developing a national policy in connection with fuel. Last winter was quite severe, and we all know the difficulty we had in getting fuel. We had to take a

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mixed supply, and the coal we got would not heat our houses, let alone our industries, hospitals and so on.

There was a long debate on this subject, and I will mention only three or four of the matters which were discussed. Reference was made to the transportation problem, because between the two wars the coal question was largely a matter of transportation. I declared in favour of bringing Alberta coal down to the head of the lakes, and developing a national coal supply for this country, from Wales, the maritimes and Alberta. Ships could have been built to bring coal from the maritime provinces to central Canada. I plead with the minister to consider the use of wooden ships, because the ships built at the foot of Bathurst street were of great use, not only in transporting coal from Wales and the maritimes, but for other purposes as well. In the last war, in 1917, I saw from Swansea, Wales, ships tied up at the Ashbridge's Bay docks, carrying granite plates and coal from the Baldwin plant in Toronto.

We hope something will be done to develop this policy further. For several months of the year we are completely dependent upon a supply of coal. I shall not discuss that matter in detail, but I hope that some day the question will be debated at length in the house. It has been under discussion for years. Then, finally, just before an election, the government voted a subsidy of $1 a ton on coal for the maritimes.

There is always a friendly attitude among the people of Ontario toward the people of the maritimes and the west and in fact the same feeling exists throughout the country. It was found that the coal of both the east coast and the Alberta mines was suitable for the production of oil, and I made the suggestion in 1923 in that coal debate that oil pipelines should be built from the west to Ontario, so that there might be a further development of the oil and coal industry in the prairie provinces. This suggestion was made many years ago. At that time I urged to have a better deal both for the miners and for the owners of the mines. A condition of that kind is absolutely necessary, and such a policy is in the best interests of confederation.

At that time, when the matter of coal was being discussed, a question of freight rates arose. The time is coming, soon after the war, when there will have to be an investigation of freight rates in Canada because, as we know, the railway commission-now called the board of transport commissioners-is not

carrying out its function. Under the Railway Act it is the duty and function of the board of transport commissioners, of their own volition, to investigate what freight rates are being asked. That provision has been made so. that there will be equality of treatment, and equality of development of the country. There must be, by order in council, some further study of this matter by the government before an election is held, because these freight and passenger rates involve both railway systems. When we consider what the two railway systems have made out of this war, we realize the necessity for a review of the rates.

A return was made to the house showing the figures to the end of 1940, and they revealed that the two railway companies made more during the first fifteen months of this war than they had made in the four and a half years before the war. The time has come, I say, for a revision of those rates, and a federal inquiry, and it is the duty of the board of transport commissioners to go into this matter.

Then we still have Gallup polls across the country. I have said that they are all "Gallup" and no poll. They are now very active in connection with federal and provincial elections. No one knows who these people are, and I say they should be regulated by the high court of parliament and election regulations. They have tried to mislead the people by propaganda as to actual conditions in the country, and have not shown fairly what the people are thinking. I do not know anyone who has voted outside the house-and I do not care.

This empire has been built up on coal. The mother country and the dominions cannot exist without a proper national policy and empire policy in respect of coal. In my opinion the story of coal between the two wars is not an argument in favour of nationalization and state control, as against private enterprise. Let us remember one basic thing regarding coal, namely, that the former industrial supremacy of Great Britain and Canada was built up on that commodity, and our recovery from war losses will to a great extent depend upon it.

Only a few hon. members are aware of the hardships endured by the miners who go down into the pits to get the coal. During the years of the industrial slump there were few who realized, as I did, the conditions under which these men had to exist, and the dangerous nature of the work they did. I have spoken about that from 1923 on, the need for providing a living wage, and for a national

War Appropriation-Munitions and Supply

policy so as to maintain the life of the worker in health and safety, and improve his living conditions. I am sorry there has not been a better deal given to miners and others in this industry, not only in Alberta and the maritimes, but also in Wales.

There is no doubt that in Britain many of these men have entered the armed forces and others are taking their places in the mines. Women are in those mines, too. I have seen pictures of women shovelling coal in mines located in the old country. The employment of young, inexperienced people under sixteen years of age, and of women, and all that kind of thing as we find it in England is not proper.

In view of the short supply of coal in the last winter-and dear knows where we shall be next winter, if we have weather such as we had in the past few months-something should be done to improve the fuel situation. If not, we shall be without houses and without fuel of any kind.

I would speak now about the coal drivers. I pointed out in the house on another occasion that retail coal dealers should be given another dollar a ton. We find that $125,000,000 is being spent on controls, but Donald Gordon has not a five-cent piece to give to the men who deliver coal, and are working for the small dealer. I have seen dozens of returned soldiers from the last war who have worked long hours night and day in zero weather and under difficult conditions at this job of coal delivery. Federal assistance should be given, through the municipalities and the industry generally, so that the dealers and workers I refer to would benefit. And that would apply not only to those delivering coal but to other deliverymen as well. Those men are not making very much money. There are too many amateurs in the country, and certainly too many amateurs, rather than experts, exercising these controls. Something should be done along that line. I appreciate the position of the industry in the maritimes, and also the situation of the mine owners. All through my life I have found that one must try to work with other people, and that there must be a little teamwork if one wishes to accomplish anything.

Then I should like to refer to the power situation, and the export of that commodity. Many people do not yet understand the great work of Sir Adam Beck and Sir James Whitney in connection with the hydro electric system in Ontario. This was begun by Conservatives, although many good Liberals helped the movement, too. However, it was mainly a Conservative activity. If it had not been for the 32283-53

great development of electrical power in that province, a fuel shortage would have been much more serious. This is an organization which exports power to the value of about $8,000,000 a year from Ontario to the United States. Under present exchange that would amount to about $10,000,000. That is the value of power which crosses the boundary line from Niagara and other points in Ontario.

As I said, every dollar of the $160,000,000 invested in hydro is earning interest. Without that investment, during the last war Ontario would have been bankrupt. The hydro organization reduced the coal, light and power bill of the province. That investment in Ontario saved an expenditure of many millions of dollars for coal, which would have gone to $30 a ton during the war had it not been for the hydro electric investment.

I say to the government that we must adopt a national reconstruction policy in connection with hydro electric energy in Canada. We have to-day about 42,000,000 horse-power in the dominion, but only about one-seventh of that amount, or 6,000,000 horse-power, has been fully developed. There may be a little more than that at the present time, but some of that development is for only part-time. We must have a national policy, supported not only by the dominion but by the provinces.

I was in the province from which the hon. member for Vancouver South comes-and probably he will follow me in this debate. I visited there in 1927, and was very much surprised to find that a country so rich in water power had not a hydro electric policy. I have been very much surprised at the lack of development in some of the other provinces. The time has come when the government should consider a national hydro electric policy as part of its reconstruction programme. Such a policy would cut domestic rates one-third and rates for commercial lighting, for industry and street lighting, almost one-third. That is what has been done in Ontario. I ask that something be done to meet that situation.

I am not in accord with what the minister has announced regarding our aviation policy. I do not believe that a monopoly will be in the best interests of this country. If we are to have conversion from a war-time to a peace-time economy we shall have to get busy along the lines I have suggested. I support the stand I took last year in connection with this matter, that the Canadian Pacific lines and the one up on Hudson bay and other private systems should be developed1 and allowed to continue. We would then have an all-Canadian policy first which could be developed into an all-empire policy for aviation.

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If the war ended to-day there would not be a British plane or a British system operating in the Pacific. Our friends to the south have the advantage of us in that connection. If we intend to convert from a war-time to a peace-time economy we must not wait too long. The United States are away in advance of us regarding this matter. They needed two million electric toasters and they decided to adopt a quota plan to distribute them as evenly as possible among the industry in converting to a peace-time economy.

I should like to say a word about the housing situation which I have been complaining about since the start of the war. In 1935 the Bennett government considered a resolution which I proposed for a national housing and reconstruction policy. A committee of the House of Commons was appointed to study the whole question of housing, urban, suburban and rural, and met for months. That committee made a report to parliament, but I did not agree with all that was in it. Instead of a vast and costly housing commission I thought money could be lent through the banks at low rates of interest to build houses from standard plans.

Then the present government came into power and1 Mr. Dunning, who was then minister of finance, adopted the policy suggested with some moderations. About 886,000,000 has been spent. That was a great thing for Toronto and all our cities and the development of housing. On February 26, 1945, I again called the attention of the present minister to this situation, and he wrote me this letter:

I have your letter of February 19, regarding housing in Toronto. We are doing our level best to meet the Toronto situation. We have provided for the appointment of an administrator of emergency shelter, and we are hopeful that great benefit will be derived from this appointment.

There has been no improvement since except the sending out of a lot of postcards through the mail. If we are to provide shelter we must provide houses or some substitute for them. The situation could have been clarified had it not been for this administrator of emergency shelter. He is a good man personally, and no doubt he has done a lot. He is a valuable citizen, being one of our hydro commissioners, and I cannot speak too highly of him. The letter continues:

In your letter you urge the construction of a large number of houses. This simply cannot be done at the present time because of the shortages of building materials. While the war is progressing satisfactorily, the demands for *war supplies are enormously heavy and there are not enough materials to meet these huge

War demands and also provide for all the building that people would like to do and which under normal conditions would be desirable.

Naturally when money is plentiful and there is a shortage of housing accommodation, hundreds of thousands of Canadians would like to use their money for the purpose of building houses. A programme of this kind is, however, impossible without a serious crippling of the war effort, which, of course, must come first.

That is the same argument that was advanced in the other war. I can tell him that the people are sick and tired of it.- In the city which I have the honour to represent I can point out considerable work that has been done by different federal departments in Toronto-properties of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation on Yonge street, south of St. Clair avenue, purchased and then abandoned and left idle for months and months. Then the C.B.C. again comes along; it is one of the most mischievous corporations we ever had in Canada, took over a Jarvis street property and got all the materials needed. I do not know how many damage actions the city will have because of the condition from ice in front of this property on Jarvis street. Many times they did not even clean off the snow from the sidewalks. They were just as bad as the local commission in Ottawa on parliament hill.

If half the money that has been spent on some camps for the forces and the materials that have been used across Canada in putting up some of these camps that should never have been built had been used for housing it would have helped to relieve the situation. Soldiers have been moved from one part of the country to the other. Camps were built, especially on the prairies where in some cases there was no water or sewage supply, that should never have been built. Millions of dollars have been spent to transport the troops from one camp to another across Canada. There will be a day of reckoning after the war as to why we failed in connection with the housing situation. As I said the year before last, a hundred thousand houses will be needed immediately in Canada. I think the select committee reported in 1944 that 606,000 were needed. I think over a million houses will be necessary for Canada before many days are over.

On Bay street, Toronto, around Simpson's store, you will see a line-up of people just the same as they line up to get into the galleries here when we have special sessions like the electric storm the night before last. I never saw such a line-up of emergency shelter people. It is an insult to these people after the way in which they have been led around by the nose by national selective service, looking for employment. They have had to waste

War Appropriation-Munitions and Supply

their time again trying to get a card for a room and they have been hounded from pillar to post for a job. Then along comes another commission called the shelter administration with no shelter available. They have no shelter to offer; all they can do is hand out postcards.

I should like to refer to the shipbuilding situation. In 1916 and 1917, when I was head of the city and one of the harbour commissioners, the government established a shipbuilding plant on the water front. A lot of money was spent. In some cases the ships built cost too much. I appreciate what the present minister has done with that particular plant and I think it is a credit to him and the government. I am not one of those who think that the government deserves no credit. The working people of Canada also deserve credit, as do the industrial leaders, for the work they have done during the war. They have set up a glorious record in pur history.

I think the present minister has contributed a great deal to the success of the great industrial war movement. I am fair enough to say so, but I am sorry he has not seen fit to do more. A total of 836,000,000 has been spent on the harbour in Toronto, and in conjunction with the government a viaduct was built. The city paid one-third of the cost. The Welland canal has been deepened and we were able to have 600,000 tons of coal in that industrial area last fall. I do not know where the Toronto district and other surrounding cities and towns would have been had it not been for that great development. Water-borne traffic has brought in most of that coal there as well as other commodities.

I plead with the minister that something be done for shipbuilding workers. I was with them on a deputation the other day and we were told that it is proposed to sell the plant. There were two specific classes of ships built for the war. In view of the great necessity of food for the devastated countries in Europe I believe the time has come to build at this plant wooden type ships which could go up the great lakes and carry not only coal but grain and other commodities. With the development that is bound to come to this country and if we are to be a maritime power we shall have to do something along these lines.

I should like to say a word or two about the reconstruction programme of the present government. I have read the proposal made to-day by the minister and I think he has waited too long to propose the policy. It has been suggested that 50,000 houses shall be built when they are able to get the material. If we wait until our soldiers come home they will be without homes at all.

32283-53i

The minister provides after the war for 900,000 more workers in employment. Let us have no more idle talk of full employment. There will be no such thing as full employment in any country in the world after this war. Conditions will be desperately hard in this country after the war. We have squandered our natural resources at an awful pace.

I am not one of those who believe in this new utopia that hon. gentlemen speak of, because in my humble opinion there will not be any utopia after this war. Everybody in Canada will have to work hard, and the first thing we should do is to abolish some of the irksome controls that have been fastened on this country. Some of them, should have been abolished long ago.

Some people talk of a reduction in taxation. But how are you to reduce taxation when billions of dollars have been raised and spent during the war? That will be a burden on the taxpayers, directly and indirectly, for years to come.

I should like to say a word on reconstruction. This party has been attacked from many parts of the house. But the Progressive Conservative party has had a wonderful record. It has always been the party of social reform in Canada, seeking to improve the condition of the toilers. We have done more than any other party, federally and provincially, to better the conditions of the workers. We are not afraid of reasonable planning that is adapted to the circumstances. The period between the two great wars was the most disastrous in the history of this or any other country. We are living in a mechanized age.. All that a great many people know is what they read in the newspapers, and dear knows they do not read much of what goes on in this house. The dictators solved the unemployment problem by preparing for war, and we should solve the unemployment problem, not by saying that we shall have full employment, but by properly preparing for the days of peace. We should develop the great natural resources of this country. We should raise the standard of living by better housing and by increasing consumption of consumer goods among the working classes, and shorten the hours of labour so that men and women will have time for some leisure and recreation. We shortened the hours of labour in Toronto in the last war by adopting in the fire and. police forces and all public departments and. commissions the eight-hour day and the platoon system. The city of Toronto has been the pioneer and leader all along the line in bettering hours of labour and working conditions, and so was the Whitney Conservative government of Ontario. We should go further

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in shortening the hours of labour so that men and women will have more leisure to enjoy the blessings of this life, if any are left after 'this war. The Conservative government of [DOT]Ontario introduced the workmen's compensation act, and in federal affairs it was some [DOT]of the Conservatives who first proposed in 1921 a national system of unemployment insurance, a national fuel policy, prison reform, health and hospital insurance and other social measures such as old age pensions.

The times call for clear thinking and plain speaking. Let us be honest one with another and put politics in the background. Let us put first things first and war winning first. Our economy and that of Great Britain are different from that of the United States and we should so rearrange matters that in the reconstruction period the working classes will not have to work longer hours or for lower wages. The best businessmen in Britain have shown what can be done by mass production there. They have been able to pay better wages, as high in some cases as those paid in the United States and produce an article just as cheaply. We should do the same thing in our country. British industrialists have shown all this can be done by factory reorganization.

Those who are attacking the Progressive -Conservative party fail to point out that in *both the federal and provincial spheres this .party has been the pioneer of nearly all the social legislation the country has and was the first party to promote on a gigantic scale public ownership of the natural resources of '.the country in light, power and transportation, the taking over of the Canadian National railway and the important development of preserving the water powers for the people of this country.

It cannot be denied also that even in England the Conservatives have done similarly. In England Conservatism has given to the country a long line of great statesmen who have known how to tread the middle path of ordered progress and to sow a political harvest which subsequent generations of Englishmen have reaped a thousand-fold. It was Clarendon who restored Church and King on the basis of "those admirable and incomparable laws of government"; Danby who founded the party system; Edward Seymour who by sponsoring the Act of Settlement paved the way for the Protestant succession; Harley whose policy led to the adoption of the principle that the crown acts through responsible ministers; William Pitt the *younger who revived the idea of the strength iof parliamentary government when compared

L

with the rule of the terrorist mob, and who gave the world and his country a priceless legacy of British opposition to arbitrary government and dictatorship; Peel who brought free trade to his country and converted the middle classes to Conservatism; Shaftesbury who stirred the conscience of his party on the urgent need for social reform; Disraeli who linked imperialism with democracy and issued his resounding appeal for the "two nations" of rich and poor to unite; Randolph Churchill, who in a brief life of intense activity gave colour and direction to the policy of Conservative for democracy; Joseph Chamberlain who fought the imperial trusteeship and brought idealism into imperialist economics; Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain whose financial "revolution" gave new life to British industry in the thirties and unconsciously paved the way in no small measure for the mighty war effort of the forties; Winston Churchill who led the country in "its finest hour." It is an impressive record of great names and great achievements, and. in our own country we have had Macdonald, Cartier, Whitney, Beck and other great Conservative leaders who have done so much for the empire and the working classes of this country in peace and war alike.

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LIB

Clarence Decatur Howe (Minister of Reconstruction; Minister of Munitions and Supply)

Liberal

Mr. HOWE:

Mr. Chairman, sad news has just come to me which I think the house should hear. I have just learned of the loss by death of a great and good friend of Canada in the person of President Roosevelt of the United States. I am sure that the house will feel deeply the tragedy of his death on the very eve of victory in Europe and will wish to convey to the family of President Roosevelt and to the country of which he is president, the sincere sympathy of every Canadian.

Topic:   DEPARTMENT OF MUNITIONS AND SUPPLY
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NAT

Gordon Graydon (Leader of the Official Opposition)

National Government

Mr. GRAYDON:

The news which has just been conveyed to the house by the Minister of Munitions and Supply is so sudden and shocking that it is very hard to find words to express one's feelings. The death of President Roosevelt has deep significance not only for every citizen of Canada but for the world at large. He has been a great national and great international figure. His removal by death at this time when perhaps his services were the most needed in all his long and useful life is an occasion which the house cannot let pass without due recognition. This is a time of deep sorrow for every one of us. A great international figure, a great statesman, a great legislator of a great country, and above all a great humanitarian has been taken from us. I shall not say more at the moment, but perhaps on another occasion I shall have an opportunity

Death of President Roosevelt

to speak in a more extended way of the great affection in which we in this House of Commons of Canada and the people of this country have held the late President of the United States.

Topic:   DEPARTMENT OF MUNITIONS AND SUPPLY
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CCF

Major James William Coldwell

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.)

Mr. COLDWELL:

May I just add a word to what has been said by those who have already spoken. I feel that the blow which has fallen on the democratic world at this moment is tragic for all mankind. We in Canada regarded President Roosevelt as a warm friend of our country, and one who in the very difficult days of the early period of the war, when his country was not completely aware of the great danger that overhung the world, was able to give us encouragement, confidence and assistance. On the eve of the San Francisco conference this is indeed a very grave blow, and we join with democratic people everywhere in mourning the passing of a great American and a great man, who belonged not only to the United States but to the whole of the civilized world.

Topic:   DEPARTMENT OF MUNITIONS AND SUPPLY
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SC

John Horne Blackmore

Social Credit

Mr. BLACKMORE:

The members of my

group will desire to associate themselves with the fine things that have already been said. I have looked upon President Roosevelt as a great source of inspiration and of leadership and I believe that mankind will remember him with sincerest and deepest gratitude and reverence. We join with those who to-day are bereaved in the United States, and indeed throughout the world, in deepest sympathy for the members of his family, and trust that someone will be raised up who will be able to take his place during the trying days to come.

Topic:   DEPARTMENT OF MUNITIONS AND SUPPLY
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NAT

Gordon Graydon (Leader of the Official Opposition)

National Government

Mr. GRAYDON:

Mr. Chairman, in view

of the sorrow of this house I suggest that we stand in a minute's silence in memory of the late President Roosevelt.

(The members stood in a minute's silence.)

At six o'clock the committee took recess.

After Recess

The committee resumed at eight o'clock. Progress reported.

Topic:   DEPARTMENT OF MUNITIONS AND SUPPLY
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DEATH OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT

LIB

William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister; Secretary of State for External Affairs; President of the Privy Council)

Liberal

Right Hon. W. L. MACKENZIE KING (Prime Minister):

Mr. Speaker, hon. members have learned of the death at Warm Springs, Georgia, this afternoon, of the President of the United States. Franklin D. Roosevelt was so close and good a neighbour, so great and true

a friend of the Canadian people, that the word when received was as if one of our very own had passed away.

I hasten to express on behalf of the government, the members of both houses of parliament now in session, and on behalf of all the people of Canada, our deepest sympathy with the government and people of the United States. I wish at the same time to express our deepest sympathy for Mrs. Roosevelt and all the members of the family in their bereavement. Their sorrow and the sorrow of the American nation will be shared by the peoples of the united nations and by those who cherish freedom in all parts of the world.

The death of President Roosevelt is in truth a loss to the whole of mankind. Few lives have been more closely identified with humanity in its needs, its struggles and- its aspirations. His services to the cause of freedom went far beyond limits of race and bounds of nationality. He was an undaunted champion of the rights of free men, and a mighty leader of the forces of freedom in a world at war. He has left to the world an enduring heritage by which his life, his faith and his courage have contributed to the well-being of his fellowmen.

It is a comforting thought at this time to-know that before the close of his great career he had already helped to fashion the design of a world organization for the maintenance of peace and security. His rest at Warm Springs was in preparation for the journey to San Francisco to open the conference of the united nations. In this conference, he envisaged the culmination of his life's great aim-an enduring peace among the nations of the world.

It was my great privilege to have been a life-long friend of Franklin D. Roosevelt. I knew him very well. Of that friendship, I shall hope to speak at another time. My feelings at this moment are perhaps best expressed in lines of Matthew Arnold's, which perhaps I may be permitted to quote. They voice what, at this hour, I believe, lies deepest in the hearts of all:

0 strong soul, by what shore Tarriest thou now? For that force,

Surely, has not been left vain!

Somewhere, surely afar,

In the sounding labour-house vast Of being, is practised that strength,

Zealous, beneficent, firm!

I believe it is.

Mr. Speaker, as a mark of respect of our country for the memory of the President, the flag will fly at half-mast from the peace tower of our parliament buildings. As a further mark of respect I know that all hon. members would wish to have this house adjourn without continuing its proceedings to-day, and I move accordingly.

Death of President Roosevelt

Topic:   DEPARTMENT OF MUNITIONS AND SUPPLY
Subtopic:   DEATH OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT
Sub-subtopic:   EXPRESSION OP SORROW OP CANADIAN PARLIAMENT AND PEOPLE
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NAT

Gordon Graydon (Leader of the Official Opposition)

National Government

Mr. GORDON GRAYDON (Leader of the Opposition):

Mr. Speaker, to the suggestion with respect to adjournment I believe the Prime Minister will have the unanimous consent of this house. May I be permitted to associate His Majesty's Loyal Opposition with the tribute paid by the Prime Minister, and to say that the news of the great President's tragic passing has left the members of this house filled with dismay and weak with sorrow. The real significance of his c(eath at one of the world's most critical hours, must be left in some degree for future times to assess. Measured by every yardstick President Roosevelt's name will echo and re-echo down through the world's hallways of fame as one of the most dynamic, powerful and successful leaders that democracy has ever given to the service of humanity.

He was enshrined in the hearts of every freedom-loving man and woman the world over. Millions of families to-night will feel the same bitter twinge of sorrow they would feel at the passing of one in their own family. President Roosevelt was a fearless, courageous and happy warrior. Whether he was battling against the dread ravages of his paralyzing affliction or fighting the good fight against political, economic and social wrongs, he never flinched, he never faltered, he never wavered.

When it became his task to throw his nation's weight against the temporarily victorious aggressor nations in this global conflict, he threw into that struggle every ounce of energy, effort and determination he possessed. Likewise in preparation for the equally compelling objective of preserving and maintaining permanent peace and security in the world, the late President was at the time of his death engaged in the same vigorous and resolute march to victory which had characterized his course of action through these many years.

I witnessed the inaugural ceremonies three months ago at the White House when Mr. Roosevelt was sworn in for his fourth term of office as President of that great republic. Seldom in my lifetime have I seen such genuine demonstrations and such touching scenes as I looked over those many thousands who had gathered to do homage to their wartime President. One could feel that that great mass of humanity was leaning heavily upon their fellow citizen and President with the profoundest conviction and confidence that the immediate future of their nation was in the best hands they knew.

IMr. Mackenzie King.]

This world can ill afford to lose President Roosevelt as it emerges from this armed holocaust and enters the threshold of one of its most critical periods. As he throws the torch to other hands let us pray that the relentless pursuit of lasting peace shall be undertaken with the same grim resolution and fortitude which characterized every move he made.

Canada mourns to-night the loss of a great friend and a good neighbour. Seldom has a president of our neighbouring republic to the south been so close to the people of this nation. Nowhere in the world will the sense of personal loss be felt in a deeper way than in the homes of the people of this dominion. We are thinking of Mrs. Roosevelt and the family as they walk to-night through the valley of the shadow of death. Canada desires to share their grief.

Language seems so weak and inadequate to reveal one's feelings at a time like this, but I summon to my help those immortal words:

Lives of great men all remind us We can make our lives sublime,

And departing leave behind us Footprints on the sands of time.

Those footprints will never be erased so long as humanity reveres brave men in peace and war who are prepared to die that others may live. '

Topic:   DEPARTMENT OF MUNITIONS AND SUPPLY
Subtopic:   DEATH OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT
Sub-subtopic:   EXPRESSION OP SORROW OP CANADIAN PARLIAMENT AND PEOPLE
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CCF

Major James William Coldwell

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.)

Mr. M. J. COLDWELL (Rosetown-Biggar):

Mr. Speaker, I can add very little to what has already been said and to the remarks I made at six o'clock, except to say that we agree with the Prime Minister (Mr. Mackenzie King) and the leader of the opposition (Mr. Graydon) that this house should adjourn as a mark of respect to a truly great man and a tribute to the great people who have lost a great leader. I have no doubt that all across the world tonight men and women who have looked to the President as the spokesman for democracy during the critical period of the last several years will mourn with the people of the United States; and we join with them in that mourning. The United States has given to the world some great leaders. President Roosevelt, I think, will rank among the greatest of them, perhaps standing beside the great Lincoln who died under tragic circumstances at the end of a long and bitter civil war. Just after having taken office for a second time Lincoln passed away mourned by a great people, by a mighty nation and by human beings all across the

Business of the House-General Election

world who have believed in freedom and democracy. To-night, on the eve of the meeting of the nations in conference to bring about the peace for which he fought, we feel the loss of President Roosevelt all the more. So, Mr. Speaker, we join with the Prime Minister, the leader of the opposition and the people not only of Canada and the United States but of the whole democratic world in mourning the loss of a world-statesman and a great soul.

Topic:   DEPARTMENT OF MUNITIONS AND SUPPLY
Subtopic:   DEATH OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT
Sub-subtopic:   EXPRESSION OP SORROW OP CANADIAN PARLIAMENT AND PEOPLE
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SC

John Horne Blackmore

Social Credit

Mr. J. H. BLACKMORE (Lethbridge):

Mr. Speaker, the members of my group desire to associate themselves with the kind and thoroughly deserved words which already have been uttered; and we approve the Prime Minister's action in moving the adjournment of this house.

Topic:   DEPARTMENT OF MUNITIONS AND SUPPLY
Subtopic:   DEATH OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT
Sub-subtopic:   EXPRESSION OP SORROW OP CANADIAN PARLIAMENT AND PEOPLE
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LIB

William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister; Secretary of State for External Affairs; President of the Privy Council)

Liberal

Mr. MACKENZIE KING:

Before we adjourn we might stand as a mark of respect.

(The members stood in a minute's silence.)

Motion agreed to and the house adjourned at 8.15 p.m.

Friday, April 13, 1945

Topic:   DEPARTMENT OF MUNITIONS AND SUPPLY
Subtopic:   DEATH OF PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT
Sub-subtopic:   EXPRESSION OP SORROW OP CANADIAN PARLIAMENT AND PEOPLE
Permalink

April 12, 1945