July 14, 1944

NAT

Gordon Graydon (Leader of the Official Opposition)

National Government

Mr. GRAYDON:

Is the minister sure that he is right in that regard?

Topic:   NATIONAL HEALTH AND WELFARE
Subtopic:   CREATION OF DEPARTMENT FOR MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF SOCIAL SECURITY AND WELFARE
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LIB

Ian Alistair Mackenzie (Minister of Pensions and National Health)

Liberal

Mr. MACKENZIE (Vancouver Centre):

Except in certain specific matters, health is essentially a provincial concern under the British North America Act.

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CCF

George Hugh Castleden

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.)

Mr. CASTLEDEN:

That is the act which prevents the dominion authority from canying out investigations.

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LIB

Ian Alistair Mackenzie (Minister of Pensions and National Health)

Liberal

Mr. MACKENZIE (Vancouver Centre):

In the province.

Mr. CASTLEDEN; What would prevent the dominion from doing something through our own national research council in Ottawa?

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LIB

Ian Alistair Mackenzie (Minister of Pensions and National Health)

Liberal

Mr. MACKENZIE (Vancouver Centre):

It was done by the national research council in Ottawa, and, according to the evidence I have from them-as my hon. friend knows, it comes under another department, the Department of Trade and Commerce-they investigated the matter and rejected it. Whether their finding was right or not it is not within my competence to say, but that is the situation.

If hon. gentlemen wish to pursue the matter further, the only course would be to have the British North America Act amended so as to give us the power to go into the province for research work such as this.

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NAT

Gordon Graydon (Leader of the Official Opposition)

National Government

Mr. GRAYDON:

May I make a suggestion? Every layman in the house finds himself somewhat confused about this matter because we know so little about it. We are all agreed that if there is something in this treatment, if it is good, it should be made available to the general public, because cancer is a disease that concerns the Canadian people of all mature ages. There is one way, however, by which the matter can be dealt with without any of the difficulties which the minister mentions with respect to the constitution. There is Deer Lodge hospital, Winnipeg; there is Christie Street hospital, Toronto, and there are many other military hospitals in the country. Cancer is not confined to civilians.

It is a disease that has afflicted many of those who have been discharged from or are at present connected with the armed forces. If * my understanding is correct, one of the things which those who support Doctor Davidson's treatment desire is that he shall be given an opportunity, in some hospital ward, to have

Department oj Health and Welfare

his experiments carried out in a practical manner. I suggest to the minister, so far as constitutionality is concerned, that he would have the power as Minister of Pensions and National Health to have this done in any of the military hospitals in Canada. I do not know whether this is practical, and I have hesitated all along to pose as in any degree an expert in this matter, because I know there are none of us laymen who are experts. I have heard some laymen in debates like this speak as though they were experts, but for myself, I do not pose as one. At the same time, I should like to make sure that nothing is being overlooked because of the point of view of the constitution, for I do not think red tape should be allowed to stand in the *way of further experimentation toward the end of helping humanity.

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LIB

Harry Leader

Liberal

Mr. LEADER:

My name having been mentioned, I should like to make a few remarks with reference to what the leader of the opposition has just said about Deer Lodge hospital. I have had some correspondence with the department with reference to a particular case in which Deer Lodge plays a part. This man, through injuries received in the last war, developed cancer, and he is now getting treatment for it in that hospital. The treatment, he thinks, is doing him no good whatever and he is taking treatment from Doctor Davidson, but the department refuses to continue his pension, I believe, certainly not to pay medical expenses if he goes to Doctor Davidson. It is not because it is Doctor Davidson; I am aware of that. It is simply a matter of red tape, which insists that these men shall have the attention of a doctor selected by the department.

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LIB

Ian Alistair Mackenzie (Minister of Pensions and National Health)

Liberal

Mr. MACKENZIE (Vancouver Centre):

Who said that-the doctors of the department?

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LIB

Harry Leader

Liberal

Mr. LEADER:

Said what?

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LIB

Ian Alistair Mackenzie (Minister of Pensions and National Health)

Liberal

Mr. MACKENZIE (Vancouver Centre):

That he could not consult Doctor Davidson.

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LIB

Harry Leader

Liberal

Mr. LEADER:

It was not the doctors of

the department. I do not know whether the minister is aware of this case, but certainly the man was refused treatment. I will not say that it was the department that said it; perhaps it was said at Deer Lodge hospital. At any rate, that is the situation. There is red tape that must be cut and a new arrangement must be made before we can get definite results. The minister mentioned my name and said that I knew what the government had done. There is truth in that, because I have kept myself posted on the progress that has been made in the investigation of Doctor Davidson's work. What the minister says is

true. His department has tried to do something, but, as he has himself said, they are powerless on account of the British North America Act. Well, this parliament is supreme; if it is not, we are a nonentity. This is the last court of appeal in the dominion and, if authority is required to change the British North America Act, I am sure Great Britain would be very glad to accede to our request. I am not afraid that if a vote were taken in this house to-day every member would vote that we should find some means of getting around the British North America Act so that the dominion might be enabled to make a grant to the provinces to carry on this work.

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CCF

Joseph William Noseworthy

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.)

Mr. NOSEWORTHY:

I had hoped, when this bill was first introduced setting up a separate department of government whose responsibility would be the national health and welfare of the people, that it would mark the beginning of a new day in Canada so far as the health of the nation was concerned. As I have listened to the debate this afternoon, and observed the readiness of the minister of pensions and the Prime Minister to give way to constitutional and other difficulties and to allow them to prevent progress, as has been evidenced in this debate, I am inclined to agree with the hon. member for Winnipeg North Centre that this bill means nothing more than, the reshuffling of departmental machinery and that the hope of those who had believed that this would mark a new beginning in matters of health is likely to be disappointed.

Certainly two things are needed if this new department is to be effective. In the first place the government must be prepared to ask parliament, and parliament must be prepared to vote more money for this Department of Health than has been either asked for or voted in the past. The health of this country has suffered because we have been more ready to spend money on almost any material object than on human welfare. In the matter of research we have been ready to spend money on industrial research, on the improvement of machinery, on the improvement of our live stock in the field of agriculture. We have been ready to spend money on research into anything except human welfare.

In the second place I suggest that the minister and his associates who head this department accept the general principle that the health of Canada is a matter of concern to the Canadian parliament, regardless of the British North America Act or any other act. When the provincial governments, whose authority it is to safeguard the health of the Canadian people, have not been doing it, and there have

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been statistics presented to this committee this afternoon to show that they have not been doing it, then it is time that some steps were taken whereby the federal government can not only provide more money but more leadership-leaders who will recognize the importance of national health and find ways and means of cooperating with the provinces to give that leadership where it is required and to provide the necessary funds to augment those that the provinces are themselves able to provide in order to improve the health of the Canadian people.

Unless this new department is set up with the objective, that from now on the federal government is to maintain a greater interest, and play a greater part in improving the health of the Canadian people than has been done in the past, then we are just wasting our time in discussing this bill.

With regard to the matter brought up by the hon. member for Portage la Prairie, I am rather disappointed that the federal government, having had this matter in their hands for twelve months, have been unable to find any way in which they could provide the means for testing the merit of this experiment. I am not impressed by the fact that this matter was sent to the national research council's medical branch and rejected. I am not unmindful of the fact that when,Pasteur first gave his discovery to the world the greatest medical scientists and members of the medical and scientific profession of that day scoffed at him, and that he had to fight his way up alone in opposition to the best medical science *of that day in order to establish his claim. I am satisfied that if Doctor Banting had made his discovery as a practising doctor in the backwoods somewhere, that discovery would not yet have been recognized by the medical profession of this country. It was fortunate for Canada and the world that the man who made that discovery was employed by one of *our provincial universities and had some *official recognition before that discovery was made. I think the members of the medical profession will agree that it is extremely difficult for any member of that profession who is not a recognized specialist, who does not hold some official position in a university or in a medical association, to get recognition for any discovery that he believes he has made.

It seems to me that this government has solved many more difficult.problems than the finding of some means whereby funds could be made available to prove whether this experiment is sound, whether it has anything to offer humanity. The point is that afflicted people all across this country are anxious to

be assured that no possibility has been overlooked in finding a remedy for this disease, cancer.

I aim sure that the committee will approve any measure the government may take to lend assistance in this field. During my short stay in the house I have been surprised at the number of occasions on which the government has persisted in disregarding what was the obvious desire of the members' of the house. I have witnessed a number of such instances where matters before the house seemed to have the obvious approval of all private members; yet the government has refused to budge an inch, no matter how the members appealed to the government. I believe we are bringing democracy into disrepute. If we are to allow trivial obstacles, red tape, if you wish to call it that, to retard progress; if we are to have a government continuing to disregard the obvious dfesire of the majority of the members of the house, there is no surer way of bringing democracy into disrepute than by following that procedure. I would ask the minister to reconsider this matter. I cannot believe that the minister cannot find any way or means of making funds available for an experiment to be carried out at some of the hospitals, either under the direction of his department or with the cooperation of the provinces, in order to find out for all time whether this experiment has in it anything worth while or anything of any merit. In pursuing this object has the minister investigated the possibility of cooperating in this field with the health officers of Manitoba, or are we to understand that the federal government has no authority under the British North America Act to vote money for research into a matter of public health? Apparently the statement just made by the Minister of Pensions and National Health would indicate that under the British North America Act the federal government has no authority to vote money for research into such matters. I believe that the government has authority to vote money for research in the industrial field, and if it has not authority to vote money for this other purpose, then steps Should be taken at once to secure for this government the right to make grants of money for research into matters of public health.

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LIB

Brooke Claxton (Parliamentary Assistant to the President of the Privy Council)

Liberal

Mr. CLAXTON:

The minister did not say we had not power.

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LIB

William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister; Secretary of State for External Affairs; President of the Privy Council)

Liberal

Mr. MACKENZIE KING:

The hon. member for York South has brought my name into this discussion on matters of jurisdiction. I made no reference at all this afternoon to the matter of cancer, which was under discussion, and I want to make it perfectly clear

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Department oj Health and Welfare

that when the hon. member says I have been seeking in any way to prevent the greatest possible research into that or any other disease he is not correctly stating the situation. I believe he will agree with that.

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CCF

Joseph William Noseworthy

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.)

Mr. NOSEWORTHY:

I apologize, Mr. Chairman, for bringing the Prime Minister's name into it.

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LIB

William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister; Secretary of State for External Affairs; President of the Privy Council)

Liberal

Mr. MACKENZIE KING:

I thank my hon. friend. I Should be very sorry indeed to have this discussion conclude without placing myself very clearly on record as to where I stand on this matter of health. I have not introduced this bill in order that nothing or as little as possible may be done in the way of improving the well-being of the people of this country. The purpose of this bill, and the reason why I as Prime Minister have taken it under my. own segis, is to make it apparent that the government is very much in earnest about going just as far as we possibly can in the matter of helping to improve the health and welfare of the people of Canada. But I ask hon. members to look at the beginning of the debate and see the line that was taken against the government on the motion for second reading, if indeed not before that. The whole line of attack on this measure on the part of some hon. gentlemen opposite, was that we were seeking to invade the jurisdiction of the provinces, that we were seeking to centralize everything in the federal government. Let us be honest and see what are the effects of arguments of the kind. Hon. gentlemen know that at [DOT] the present time election campaigns are being carried on in three provinces in this country. We know that each of these provinces is going to assert its rights as. against any authority which would seek to invade them. Already in each province this argument is heard: "They are endeavouring at Ottawa to centralize everything there."/1 have had to be particularly careful in presenting this measure to make it perfectly clear, in order that the measure itself may not be prejudiced, that we are not seeking to centralize matters in Ottawa, nor are we seeking to invade the jurisdiction of the provinces./ I have made it very clear, I think, that the only way real progress can be made in matters of research and the like, where there is a debatable jurisdiction as between the provinces and the dominion, is to have a department of health at Ottawa that will be in a position to associate closely with it representatives of the different provinces, to go into these questions and between them work out some method of coordinating the different services being rendered by the provinces and the

[Mi Mr -kenzie King.]

dominion, in such a manner as will prevent overlapping and at the same time guard against anything in the nature of omission of necessary services. That is one of the reasons why I am most anxious to see this particular department established.

I have been in parliament for a good many years. When I came here first I was not unlike a good many other hon. members who have come into this house for the first time; I inveighed very strongly against any question of jurisdiction being permitted to interfere with anything we wished to do. But the longer I have been in this House of Commons the more clearly I have seen how very careful we have to be if, because of disregard for matters of jurisdiction, we do not want to make the last state of the condition we are striving to improve worse than the first. These matters can be met effectively only in a right and proper way. I recall very well what I am sure is in the minds of a good many hon. gentlemen opposite at this moment ; how the leader of one of the parties opposite introduced in this parliament a lot of social legislation and, in the words of one hon. member who spoke this afternoon, said, "The great majority of hon. members are in favour of this, so why should we not do as we wish?" That legislation was introduced and placed upon the statute books, but what happened? The matter was appealed to the supreme court, which held the whole body of legislation ultra vires. I ask my hon. 'friends whether that was helping social order in the country, or whether it was the sort of thing that was calculated to provoke social unrest. For that reason, if for no other, I feel that it is part of the duty of a government to anticipate all possible consequences of the kind, f So far as this measure goes I would feel that in the matter of research into various diseases, this bill affords the government an opportunity to go just as far as our jurisdiction will permit. I am not at all sure that our jurisdiction will not permit us to go much farther than some people have thought, but at this moment I am not going to say that we have jurisdiction to do a particular thing and that we are going to do it, and to-morrow have the press of the country come out and say, "The federal government has undertaken to invade the jurisdiction of the provinces in the matter of health; behold, this is only the thin edge of the wedge. They are doing it now in rega'd to public health and welfare; next they will do it in regard to something else, and then something else." That is why the measure has been carefully drawn to make clear that as far as we have jurisdiction we can do anything in the way of research to prevent disease

Department of Health and Welfare

and help improve public welfare, but that there is no intention to go beyond our jurisdiction. The bill says:

The duties, powers and functions of the minister shall extend to and include all matters-

Not some matters, but all.

-relating to the promotion or preservation of the health, social security and social welfare of the people of Canada over which the parliament of Canada has jurisdiotion. . . .

That section is intended to give this new department the widest possible scope in matters of research and the prevention of disease, the only limitation being the degree of jurisdiction. I draw particular attention to this point, to which attention has not been drawn thus far. This clause, which has been taken from the existing legislation on national health, cointains reference to two matters not included in the present act. It adds social security and social welfare. The existing act only extends to "all matters relating to, the promotion or preservation of the health." This legislation includes matters relating to social security and social welfare. Under social security, as I pointed out the other day, will come the administration of family allowances; and under family allowances will necessarily come matters pertaining to child welfare and the like. It is therefore perfectly clear that under this legislation we should have the fullest possible authority to go into these questions affecting the well-being of children, families and the like. Then, to carry the matter a step farther, the section continues:

. . . and, without restricting the generality

of the foregoing, particularly the following matters;

I shall skip the first paragraph and go on to the second:

(b) investigation and research into public health and welfare.

I would regard the question of cancer as something immediately pertaining to public health and welfare; and under this section as it is now worded, unless some obstacle is discovered by those whose duty it is to interpret the statutes, I can see nothing that precludes this federal government from investigating that particular disease if it decides to do so. I happen to have in my folder here something I obtained from a newspaper only yesterday. I was surprised to see it in another connection, but it bore so directly on what was in my own thoughts that I put it aside in case it might prove to be an appropriate quotation to use to-day. Reference has been made to Louis Pasteur. I think I hold' as great regard as any one in this house for the work of Pasteur. I

believe humanity has had no greater benefactor than Pasteur. I therefore quote these words, which are his own:

Take interest, I implore you in those sacred dwellings which one designates by the expressive term: Laboratories. Demand that they be

multiplied, that they be adorned. These are the temples of the future-'temples of well-being and of happiness. There it is that humanity grows greater, stronger, better.

I hope that one of the effects of this measure will be that we shall realize in this country, as we have not realized heretofore, the importance of laboratories and the work that is carried on in laboratories. I want to see the work of research extended, and I believe it will be extended and expanded very fully under this particular measure.

Do not let anyone say that the government is seeking to evade doing anything that should be done. If jurisdiction permits it, I think this question of cancer ought to be investigated by a federal department or authority. If jurisdiction does not permit, then I shall be prepared to join with those who will work to obtain an amendment to the measure which will give us the necessary jurisdiction. I think we ought to have it. That is my position.

I am not at this moment, however, going to embarrass the enactment of this measure by committing myself to any specific matter which will give ground to those who are interested in defeating the measure by permitting them to say that we are invading provincial jurisdiction and are trying to centralize everything in Ottawa. That I hope will make clear, not only my position but the position of the government and the position of the Liberal party.

My hon. friend says that the majority in this house are always in favour of this or that, and that the government is continually opposing what the majority wants. May I tell him that he belongs to a minority. He mistakes it for a majority. The majority are on this side of the house. Where has the government opposed what the majority has wished? We have not opposed any measure that the majority wished to have. If we had, we would not be here. We are as anxious as anyone else in this house to further all the measures for social welfare and human well-being we possibly can within the time that is at our disposal so to do.

I regard this measure as one of the foremost measures to permit the doing of those things which are necessary for improving the health of the people.

At six o'clock the committee took recess.

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Department oj Health and Welfare

After Recess

The committee resumed at eight o'clock.

Topic:   NATIONAL HEALTH AND WELFARE
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IND

Alan Webster Neill

Independent

Mr. NEILL:

The right hon. the Prime Minister, speaking before six o'clock and answering an hon. member on this side of the house, said that there was a certain subsection of this section which was sufficiently wide in its terms to cover all research and consequently it might cover research into cancer. But I could not help noticing that he qualified his statement by a reference to jurisdictional conditions. The minister of pensions, speaking shortly before, said the very opposite. An hon. member was speaking and the minister challenged him to name the authority under which the federal government could act in a matter arising within a province in connection with medical research, and he quoted the justice department as having given a definite decision to that effect, founded on the British North America Act, in a particular case that had arisen in one of the provinces.

There is not much trouble in getting somebody to cooperate with you if the other party is solely obligated to making the expenditure and you are willing to put up a part of it. You will generally find that most individuals and municipal governments and provincial governments will not mind cooperating with you if you offer to pay part of the obligation which is wholly theirs. That is the situation in this case. If the minister wants a precedent I refer him back seventeen years ago when the old age pension question was before the house and we got a definite ruling from the justice department in writing, just as the minister has now, that the dominion government could do nothing about old age pensions because, according to the British North America Act, it was solely under the jurisdiction of the provinces. That held the thing back for one or more years. The same situation is here exactly. We know that in spite of that judicial ruling seventeen years ago millions of dollars have been spent since by the dominion government in cooperation with the provinces for old age pensions. It shows that where there is a will there is a way. While ostensibly there is this constitutional difficulty, it could be got around. If we offered to pay part of the cost or put an item in the estimates for research, the provinces would not kick about it.

I will approach the matter from another angle. The minister asked where you could get authority to justify it. I submit that the authority is in the will of the people of Canada. If the minister put an item in the estimates for this purpose, nobody in this

house would object to it, and certainly the provinces would not either. The amount could then be used for research into cancer in general or into Doctor Davidson's treatment in particular. There is a maxim or postulate in constitutional law-perhaps it is only a tradition-that the people under a democratic form of government always get what they want if they want it badly enough or if enough of them want it, and if this question went to a plebiscite there is no question what /the public would want. They would not stand on a matter of form or be deterred by any red tape. They would say: "Do something about it." If an item were put in the estimates there is no question that it would go through, and it could be used to help any research into cancer or, if found advisable, to aid in Doctor Davidson's research.

I am reminded of an anecdote, and the minister of pensions will be able to tell the Prime Minister what collops are. It is a favourite Scotch dish. The Duchess of Atholl wanted to hire a maid and so she went, as housewives do, to a friend of hers who had employed a particular woman and inquired about her. The other lady, who was also Scottish, said that the woman was an awfully decent lassie, a fine girl, a decent lassie. She kept repeating how decent the girl was. Decent has a different meaning in Scotland from elsewhere because there it applies not only to morals but to the general background of a person. It means a reputable person, a person you would like to have dealings with in your home. Well, this lady kept repeating that the woman was a decent lassie, perhaps because the maid was none too expert in the culinary art and she did not want to hurt her too much. Finally the duchess lost patience and said: "Damn her decency. Can she make good collops?"

We have been told this afternoon that the board turned down the application of Doctor Davidson because he did not submit "scientific" formulae. Let us drive a worthy spear through red tape and medical tradition by saying: Damn the formulae. Can this man cure cancer? That is the point. If he can or thinks he can, let us have an investigation.

I want to say that the hon. member for Portage la Prairie has made a very gallant effort in a worthy cause, and I am extremely sorry that the matter has been postponed for at least a year. But we can all agree that the hon. member has done his best in a very deserving cause.

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LIB

Frederick William Gershaw

Liberal

Mr. GERSHAW:

I spoke on the question of cancer a few days ago and do not wish to repeat. The medical profession in Canada is

Department of Health and Welfare

most anxious to find any cure it can possibly get for cancer. No one is resisting anything in the way of improvement in treatment of cancer. A few years ago in Alberta a great many people were going to a certain place where they thought they could get a cure for cancer. The provincial government finally sent men from the university in the north to that place in the south to investigate the whole layout. They did so and decided against it. The people then were satisfied that no benefit could be received and they stopped going there. We do not want to raise false hopes in the breasts of people who are in a hopeless condition with cancer, and that is why I feel that some organization should investigate this question thoroughly and bring in a finding in this particular case for the satisfaction of the public.

Mr. GRAYDON; There has not been any reflection on the medical profession by anybody, has there?

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LIB

Frederick William Gershaw

Liberal

Mr. GERSHAW:

Probably not, except that it was mentioned that they had something to sell. The minister has been very sympathetic. He has taken the matter up with the medical board of the research council, and apparently they have decided against it. I spoke to the minister and he was kind enough to refer the matter to the Rockefeller institute. In the state of New York there is a heavily endowed institute with many specialists and experts who have been making investigations along these lines for years. I am glad that the minister got in touch with them in regard to this particular case. It seems to me that the evidence produced here should be referred to men in Manitoba on the ground who arc capable of investigating and possibly after that something further could be done. But that seems to be the immediate step.

I wish to emphasize that cancer is curable by well standardized methods if it is caught in its early stages. Cancer of the lip, of the face, of the breast., of the cervix-places which are accessible to X-ray or radium or surgery- can be cured, and a great deal is being done in Canada by cancer associations from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Pamphlets are published, articles printed in the magazines, and people urged on all sides to get advice if any little sore does not heal, because according to present knowledge the hope of complete cure is very good, almost perfect, under those circumstances. I want to praise and pay tribute to those people throughout the country.who are devoting time and money to spreading news of the curability of cancer and urging people to take precautions while there is yet time. I

again appeal to the minister, in view of the new evidence which has been given, to take further action along lines which will bring results and satisfy the public. We do not want people to be going without help when help can be obtained; we want help to be given in a big way.

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LIB

William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister; Secretary of State for External Affairs; President of the Privy Council)

Liberal

Mr. MACKENZIE KING:

One point

should be made perfectly clear. From the discussion here to-day it may be assumed throughout the country that, because of decisions given as to jurisdiction, the dominion government is preventing Doctor Davidson from making certain investigations which might be made at the instance of government authority. .What I cannot understand is this: Doctor Davidson having the reputation which he has, hon. members from Manitoba believing in him as they do, why the province of Manitoba itself does not undertake the work of research in relation to cancer and retain Doctor Davidson for the purpose. It should be made perfectly clear that the province of Manitoba, if it wishes to do so, can undertake all this woj;k of research so far as Doctor Davidson is concerned. In Ontario the provincial government has undertaken similar kinds of research.

To show at least the sympathy which the federal government has had with research in a case where success has been proven, I recall very well that, when Doctor Banting had found a cure for diabetes with insulin, I myself had placed1 in the estimates and headed a discussion in this house to have Doctor Banting given a life endowment of 87,000 a year, and it was so voted by this house. That surely is an indication of the sympathy which the federal parliament has with the work of research where it has reason to believe that matters have proceeded sufficiently far to justify making a special grant and special endowment. If the province of Manitoba were to have Doctor Davidson undertake to make a research into cancer at the instance of the province, and he were as successful in his subject as Doctor Banting was in his, I for one would be prepared to ask this house to adopt toward him by way of endowment the same course which it adopted toward Doctor Banting.

Topic:   NATIONAL HEALTH AND WELFARE
Subtopic:   CREATION OF DEPARTMENT FOR MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF SOCIAL SECURITY AND WELFARE
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July 14, 1944