In so far as the Department of National Defence for Air is concerned:
1. Civilian pilots are classed as junior or senior pilots and the expression "Captain Pilot" is not employed.
2. These pilots are employed and paid by the civilian companies which operate the schools. As a guarantee against breach or default of the terms of the contract between pilots and the operating companies, the companies deduct and retain a deposit reserve from salary at the rate of $25 per month during the probationary period of from 3 to <1 months. At the conclusion of the probationary period, if the services of the pilot are satisfactory, his salary is increased and the reserve deduction is raised to $50 per month.