Temporary service is required in every branch of the agricultural
service, as it is in all other departments. We have temporary service due to the fact that persons have been taken on and have not yet completed the six months' probationary period before they become permanent. Then there is another class of temporary service where people are only seasonal employees. There are also those on wages who are engaged from time to time in connection with our different operations.
The activities include the study of problems arising in the processing of milk, in the manufacture of butter, cheese, ice cream, condensed milk, dehydrated milk, casein, milk sugar, fermented milks and by-products, and bacteriological, chemical and other research work for the purpose of establishing sound principles of manufacture in the dairy industry. The group confers with and advises dairymen and managers of dairies and milk product factories in regard to new problems requiring scientific treatment. It is also called upon to ascertain and develop the most appropriate methods to be applied in the making of high grade and uniform dairy products and to investigate and apply remedial measures to new defects which arise from time to time in manufactured products.
Work has been carried on in British Columbia particularly with regard to wood taint and surface deterioration in the storage of butter. The matter of wood taint and surface deterioration in connection with the storage of export butter has become a problem
of serious economic importance to the Canadian butter industry and studies have been and are still being undertaken to determine ways and means of overcoming these defects. The moisture content of boxes, the type of wood, the length of storage period, the temperature of storage and the methods of packing have been studied. In addition, the possible methods of treating the interior of butter boxes has been studied and new types of aluminum oil wrapper for storage butter are being investigated further.
expenditure is made under this item. I am not finding any fault with the work done by the department in an endeavour to control the infestation of grasshoppers, cutworms and so on. I think money spent in this connection is well spent. What proportion of this vote will be expended in Saskatchewan, and how many senior and junior entomologists will be located there? Perhaps the minister could give us some information as to the possibilities of infestation of cutworms and grasshoppers. There is a possibility that there will be an influx of political grasshoppers into Saskatchewan in the next two or three weeks, and I understand that these are more dangerous to the people than some of the bugs that have troubled us in previous years.
I do not expect that the minister will give us the amount of money to be expended in controlling this latter grasshopper pest, because I realize that he may be one of the principal grasshoppers in that province. However, all jokes aside, I think that this is an important work being carried on under this branch.
The expenditures under this item in Saskatchewan are:
Field crop insects, $26,210.
Indian Head Forest insects, $7,278.
There will be other expenditures made in connection with field crops, such as:
British Columbia Vernon
Field crop insects, $5,875.
Fruit insects, $7,865.
Forest insects, $14,179.
Some of the investigations to be carried on outside Saskatchewan will be beneficial to that province. It is feared that this year the infestation of grasshoppers will be more widespread-I am speaking now of the variety that really hop-than in previous years. There is also the possibility that the same may be said with reference to the cutworm. During the early part of the season this year in the southwestern part of the province there seemed to be great danger of prevalence of the cutworm. I do not know whether the scientists will agree with me, but it has been my practical experience that in the years when you have considerable rainfall the grasshopper does not make the same inroads as in other years. That is also more or less true of the cutworm, although not to the same extent. I suppose we shall have to wait for developments to see whether either insect will make greater inroads this year.