February 10, 1937

CON

Alfred Johnson Brooks

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. BROOKS:

What is the present position of the extradition proceedings affecting Captain Freeman Hatfield?

Topic:   QUESTIONS
Subtopic:   CAPTAIN FREEMAN HATFIELD
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LIB

Ernest Lapointe (Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada)

Liberal

Mr. LAPOINTE (Quebec East):

From

information received, Captain Freeman Hatfield intends to appeal from the decision of the United States circuit court of appeals to the Supreme Court of the United States.

Housing Policy-Mr. Massey

Topic:   QUESTIONS
Subtopic:   CAPTAIN FREEMAN HATFIELD
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QUESTIONS PASSED AS ORDERS FOR RETURNS


SOIiEL, QUE., GRAIN ELEVATOR


LIB

Louis Édouard Fernand Rinfret (Secretary of State of Canada)

Liberal

Mr. RINFRET:

Return tabled herewith.

Topic:   QUESTIONS PASSED AS ORDERS FOR RETURNS
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TERMINATION OF GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS WITH INDIVIDUALS-LOSS OF SALARY

LIB

Mr. MUTCH:

Liberal

1. What was the cost to the federal treasury in each of the fiscal years from 1929 to 1936, inclusive, arising out of the termination of contracts entered into between the federal government and individuals and involving compensation for loss of salary as provided in such contracts as may have been thus voided?

2. Who were the persons with whom such settlements were made?

3. What was the date of the contract in each instance, and the date it was terminated?

4. How much did each individual receive?

Topic:   QUESTIONS PASSED AS ORDERS FOR RETURNS
Subtopic:   TERMINATION OF GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS WITH INDIVIDUALS-LOSS OF SALARY
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DISMISSAL OF QUEBEC POSTMASTERS AND MAIL CARRIERS

CON

Mr. WERMENLINGER:

Conservative (1867-1942)

1. How many postmasters in the province of Quebec were dismissed since November, 1935?

2. How many were dismissed in each of the other provinces of the dominion?

3. How many mail carriers have been replaced since November, 1935: (a) in the province of Quebec; (b) in each of the other provinces of the dominion?

Topic:   QUESTIONS PASSED AS ORDERS FOR RETURNS
Subtopic:   DISMISSAL OF QUEBEC POSTMASTERS AND MAIL CARRIERS
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SURVEY PARTIES-QUEBEC PROVINCE

LIB

Mr. BOULANGER:

Liberal

1. How many geodetic, geological, hydrographic, topographic and land survey parties were working in the province of Quebec, during 1936?

2. What are the names and salaries of the members of each of these parties, and which of them were only employed temporarily?

3. In what sections of the province of Quebec were these .parties employed, and what was the nature of their work?

Topic:   QUESTIONS PASSED AS ORDERS FOR RETURNS
Subtopic:   SURVEY PARTIES-QUEBEC PROVINCE
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HOUSING POLICY

CON

Denton Massey

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. DENTON MASSEY (Greenwood) moved:

Whereas the home is the quick centre of all national life;

And whereas, there is an appalling scarcity of homes in this dominion, and also that slum conditions exist to a shocking degree in most of our urban centres;

And whereas, as a result of conditions beyond their control, many working men who do not own homes are unable to build;

And whereas, housing plans have been operating with outstanding success in many countries, especially, for example, in the United Kingdom and Sweden,

Therefore be it resolved,-That, in the opinion of this house, the government should give full and immediate consideration to the setting up of a housing plan, with a thought to eliminating slum conditions; to overcoming the shortage of sufficient dwellings, adequately, properly and happily to house our population; and to making possible to the working man who wants to build, and who is at present unable to build, the building of his own home.

He said: Mr. Speaker, I introduce this

resolution to the house recognizing five existing and contributing factors: First, that we have a national employment commission that has been functioning for nearly a year to investigate and report upon ways and means of providing employment. Second, that Bill No. 11, to provide for a home improvement plan, on recommendation of the national employment commission, has already passed to the stage of third reading. Third, that the need for houses and the necessity for slum clearance is both appalling and appallingly obvious. Fourth, that experiments in housing plans and slum clearance schemes are by no means untested and untried, having proved to be a preeminent success in many countries, particularly in the United Kingdom and Sweden. And, fifth, that the hurdles of provincial and municipal cooperation must be negotiated before the federal government can step in.

I plan to approach this great problem of slum clearance under three main headings: First, the moral responsibility of the nation to protect its national life; second, the vital obligation of the nation to preserve and enhance national life; and, third, the prime necessity of employment both for those who have worked and are out of work, and for those who are prepared, equipped and ready to work but who cannot get a job-in other words, our youth.

73S

Homing Policy-Mr. Massey

First, as to the moral responsibility of the nation to protect its national life. As the resolution states, the home is the quick centre of national life. It may sound platitudinous to say, nevertheless it is true, that as goes the home so goes the nation. If the house is but a house and not a home, how can national home life exist? If the house is dilapidated, dirty, insanitary and inadequate, or if the conditions are those of overcrowding, and are unhealthy, demoralizing and a virtual insult to any sense of human decency, those who live under such conditions are bound to be the victims of the circumstances of their environment.

The converse is also true. If the people live in happy, tidy, clean homes, there is at once set up a sense of ownership, a desire to "possess possessions" and the feeling that, after all, the person owning a home has a stake in the state. The fact that people live in homes, not just in houses, is of inestimable value to any country. Broadly speaking, can we say to-day, particularly of urban centres, that the backbone of these communities, the working men, all have the opportunity of living in homes rather than in houses?

For nearly eight years, since 1929 and during the days of the depression, we have witnessed what may be described as a gradual undermining of Canadian national life. Some have lost their homes as a result of having purchased them under a mortgage plan, and have been unable to continue payment of the interest rates charged. Failing to meet payments on mortgages, they have lost their homes and their stakes in them and have been compelled to live in inadequate houses and to move about from place to place, usually at each move going lower and lower down the scale in the standard of living. The effect of such catastrophic events on youth, the industrial worker, or the farmer, is too great to estimate.

Then, too, in the past seven years no less than 1,500,000 of our young people have reached the age of sixteen years. What has been the effect on them as they have watched their parents suffer the indignity of having to move about from place to place? What has been the effect upon these young people, as they have been forced to witness the demoralizing spectacle of the parents being paid money to keep body and soul together, and still not being able to get work? Then, there are the conditions occasioned by the doubling up of families, conditions which have produced awful and degrading circumstances. Not long ago I was in a room of not more than

two hundred square feet in which were living two families consisting of five adults of opposite sexes. I hold in my hand the report of the lieutenant governor's committee on housing conditions in Toronto. It is a most illuminating document, and as one peruses its pages he cannot help but be impressed by the fact that in the city of Toronto at least conditions prevail which the average citizen would not care to contemplate, but which as representatives of the people it is our sworn duty to contemplate.

There are many interesting statements in the report, but none quite as staggering as that concerning juvenile delinquency. At page 45 of the report we find that the rate of juvenile delinquency in good housing areas is 7.9 per 10,000 of population, while in areas where housing is totally inadequate and where slum conditions exist the rate stands at no less than 36.6. In other words it is five times as great in one as in the other. Then, at page 50 I find this:

The whole plane of sex morality is likely to be lower in districts of poor housing. The breakdown in self respect due to lack of privacy and indiscriminate intermingling of the sexes results in a general increase of sex delinquency. The social consequences of dark halls and stairways are also seen in the increased number of nuisances committed where such conditions exist. In conference police officials stated that "houses of ill-fame are more numerous in areas of dilapidated and outworn housing, and a prominent social worker gave it as her opinion that illegitimacy and social diseases are more than generally prevalent among the occupants of bad houses.

I have gone to many of these areas and have visited families living in them. I believe I can speak with knowledge and certainty of conditions which exist in Toronto. In many of the areas the conditions are worse than deplorable, and always inexcusable. There are those who have attempted by manipulation of pencil and paper to show that there is no overcrowding in some of our urban centres. I maintain that in the light of the knowledge we all have, such statements are nothing short of criminal.

The Bruce report, to which I have referred, and many others, bring to our attention with crystal clearness deplorable conditions existing in many of our urban centres-yes, and not only in the cities, but in rural areas as well, where often they are desperate, conditions beyond the control of those who are forced to live under them. We are inclined sometimes to sit back and say, "Well, at least a man can be clean." I say there are conditions under which it is impossible for a man to be clean, and that therefore we should condemn ourselves for permitting these condi-

Housing Policy-Mr. Massey

tions to exist. A few days ago I was speaking to an hon. member of this chamber who comes from Saskatchewan, and who informed me that in some parts of that province there are houses where protection against the cold is so inadequate that one member of the family must sit up all night to attend the fire with whatever fuel is available in order to attempt to keep frost out of the house.

It is not my intention to try to prove by figures, by quoting from reports, or by placing on Hansard a volume of evidence to substantiate it, the truth of the statement that we in Canada to-day are facing a shortage of between 75,000 and 100,000 houses, that in urban centres slum conditions exist which are virtually a disgrace to Canada, let alone to the cities in which they exist, and that the housing of our rural population is desperately in need of attention. Mr. Speaker, we have had investigations and commissions, commissions and investigations, almost ad nauseam, -but in the main, what has been done? The purpose of the resolution is to bring to the attention of the house not merely the conditions which exist, but the necessity for immediate action in connection with this most vital of national problems. How long are municipalities to be p-rmitted to permit this cancerous growth of slums to eat at the very vitals of our nation? We talk about putting men to work, about that burning problem which has the attention of everyone to-day, namely that of employment and the finding of jobs for people who are out of work. Yes, by all means put men to work-but from what background?

In this house and out of it we have discussed at length the great problem of youth-youth that is undernourished and in ill health, whose morale is gone. What are we doing to build up our youth? We exercise great care over their education and this question has been discussed in the house. The hon. member for Essex East (Mr. Martin), whose motion follows mine on the order paper under notices of motion, is introducing a resolution in connection with scholarships. Splendid, but what of the morale of youth?

I had the privilege of visiting the United Kingdom this summer and I realized that the mother country had not been slow to recognize the necessity of building up the morale of the worker. It is with essentially such a background that the mother country has launched and put into effect so efficient a housing scheme. The same is true of Sweden. A filthy house and the environment of a poorly ventilated, insanitary, verminous and smelly room will set up only one set of reactions in the mind of a human being-a

sense of inferiority, inadequacy and despair. If a man is red blooded at all, these feelings turn into but one thing-rebellion. There is an undermining effect from spending the day in walking the streets looking for work and then returning to an evil smelling, verminous and filthy space that is all a man has to call home. This is a fact which we are perhaps sometimes slow in recognizing.

I have in my hand a publication of the London County Council with reference to Becontree, one of the new subdivisions of the city of London. This subdivision has an area of 2,778 acres and houses no less than 25,000 families or 120,000 people. Attractive and clean cottages and flats are to rent, each with its garden and all that goes with it. A three-room cottage may be rented for $3.10 per week, or a six-room cottage for $5.60. This subdivision is only one of many around London. I have before me a map prepared by the London County Council showing the housing estates in operation in 1936. Hon. members who have seen this plan are amazed at the number and extent of the areas which have been set up by the London County Council under their housing plan.

I do not wish at this point to criticize in any way the operations of the national' employment commission, but surely it is not necessary to spend thousands of dollars-on investigations and use up months of time in connection with this matter of housing. The home improvement plan which we have been discussing in this house is splendid as far as it goes; it is a step in the right direction, but of what possible good is this plan to the man who has been evicted from one hovel after another, who is renting a place he is forced to call his home? The other day in committee I asked the minister a question concerning the use of money to be granted under the home improvement plan and whether any machinery had been set up whereby a home would be demolished when the owner should demolish rather than repair it. The minister's answer is to be found on page 479 of Hansard of February 2, 1937, as follows:

As the hon. member is aware, the duty of condemning a dwelling house as being unfit for human habitation is a provincial matter.

The home improvement plan is only one small step in filling the great need for housing. May it not be to the government as the words of the hymn, " One step enough for me."

In the second place there is a vital obligation on the nation to preserve its national health. As has been said already in this chamber this session, sickness costs this country approximately $300,000,000 a year.

Housing Policy-Mr. Massey

Much has been done to cure tuberculosis, while typhoid fever and diphtheria have been practically eliminated. All diseases of bacterial origin have decreased in a striking manner. We rejoice in Canada in such medical achievements and the achievements in the realm of science such as those of Sir Frederick Banting. But our governments, municipal, provincial and federal, do nothing to eliminate slum areas in our cities and to improve living conditions in some of our rural districts. Whole city blocks of so-called dwellings and many farm houses are virtually breeding grounds for the most filthy of diseases. The occupants of these places are unable to do anything about it. The slum areas of our cities foster all the evils of infant mortality, infantile paralysis, tuberculosis and other insidious diseases. These diseases are being fed by the conditions under which we compel men and women to live. One of the most filthy of all plagues, venereal diseases, is fostered by overcrowding in slum areas. On the basis of public health alone, it is incumbent upon the government to adopt the spirit of this resolution by doing as much as possible toward the elimination of slums and building up toward the happy housing of our population. Yes, the government should do all possible to assist the provinces and municipalities to eradicate this slum evil, the greatest blot on the escutcheon of Canada.

Unemployment is a burning question in this country to-day, but what is the use of giving work to men who are rendered physically incapable of working, as a result of the conditions under which they have been compelled to live. Within the last few days it was my privilege to talk to the one who was responsible for this report, the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, Doctor H. A. Bruce. During the course of our conversation that was the point he stressed, what is the use of expecting men to be able to work who have not worked for years and who have lived under the most unfortunate conditions.

There are some startling figures to be found in this report. In Glasgow the death rate per thousand in areas where families live in one room, is 29-9; where the families live in four rooms the rate is 10 * 8, just one-third. In Edinburgh the death rate in a certain area in 1892 was 45-5 per thousand. In 1933, after the elimination of slum conditions, the death rate in the same area was only 15 per thousand, just one-third what it had been. The challenge is here and something must be done. This job of work is an active, not a passive job. There is no possibility that good times of themselves will clear up our slum

areas. There is a job of work that must be done. May I quote the words of that great statesman of the nineteenth century, Benjamin Disraeli, who said:

The public health is the foundation upon which rests the happiness of the people and the welfare of the nation. The care ol the public health is the first duty of the statesman.

In the third place, there is the prime necessity of providing employment. A few days ago Mr. Tom Moore, vice chairman of the national employment commission, speaking to the Canadian Construction Association, then convened at Ottawa, is reported as follows:

Mr. Moore said that out of approximately 2,000,000 houses possessed by the Canadian people, based on the average life of a house at 30 years, 30,000 houses per year would be a fair estimate for new building. The total reported for the last five years had not been more than half this.

"According to this approach there would be a deficit of about 75,000 houses which, at an average cost of $3,300 each, would amount to a total building requirement of $247,500,000," Mr. Moore declared.

He pointed out that of 95,000 families on relief in Canadian cities of over 25,000 population, approximately nine per cent occupied one room and II per cent two rooms, making a total of 20 per cent, living in one or two

It is a well known fact that the building of houses provides more work than any other type of construction, with the possible exception of the building of concrete roads. Approximately 80 per cent of the cost of a house is used in labour, direct and indirect. Thus in the $3,300 home of which Mr. Moore speaks, there would be $2,640 of labour direct and

indirect. ,

It is unnecessary to call the attention of this house to the depressed condition of the building industry. Sufficient be it to say that the building industry to-day is struggling along about one-third of normal, and in this industry normal at no time in Canada has been anything to write home about. In the city of Toronto, my own city, in 1928 our building permits amounted to $51,607,188, while in 1935 they had dwindled to $9,905,455, or 20 per cent of the 1928 figure. The city hall has reported a further drop for the seven months ended July 31, 1936, as compared with the same period the year before, the actual figures being $3,869,041 as against $5,951,602 for the previous year, or just two-thirds of the amount for the year previous.

What better, broader, fuller way to create employment efficiently than by a housing and slum clearance plan? Those of us who have talked to men in the trade, to secretaries of unions and to those who are concerned with

Housing Policy-Mr. Massey

the building trades realize that an increase of even only a slight amount in the building trade would make a spectacular difference to employment in Canada, and a 25 per cent increase in the building trade means, Mr. Speaker, that we would have in Canada a scarcity of skilled mechanics. Here then is a magnificent opportunity for apprenticeships. Increase the rate of building in Canada; create a scarcity of skilled mechanics, and as a result thousands of apprentices who have studied through the technical school or some other medium to be plumbers, electricians, carpenters or whatever it may be, have an opportunity to step in, not to displace any adult skilled mechanic, but to learn their trade.

Slum clearance, let it be remembered also, does not necessarily involve construction only, for there is demolition; there is the elimination of what already exists, and elimination can be accomplished by unskilled labour. Therefore a housing and slum clearance plan at once accomplishes three purposes-the providing of jobs for skilled labour, the providing of jobs for unskilled labour, and the providing of jobs for apprentices and those who wish to practise what they have learned1 in the schools and otherwise as their trade.

The need for a dominion-wide housing plan is indeed a crying need, and if the plan is delayed much longer it seems to me that the results will inevitably be one of two, or both together: the breaking out of a severe epidemic in congested areas, or an understandable open revolt of those who are compelled to live within these areas. How much longer are 33,449 families going to occupy 15,780 houses? These are actual figures recently released in the city of Toronto. We have heard something of late in this chamber about subversive forces at work in this dominion. We have heard certain statements made in regard to the alleged rise of communism in Canada. What is the answer to these subversive forces? What is the answer to communism in Canada? Is it bludgeoning? Is it force? God forbid. The answer is in jobs and in proper homes. But what has been done? We have a national home improvement plan. That is one step. But what has been done on a broad national scale?

Topic:   QUESTIONS PASSED AS ORDERS FOR RETURNS
Subtopic:   HOUSING POLICY
Sub-subtopic:   ELIMINATION OF SLUM CONDITIONS AND PROVISIONS FOR OVERCOMING SHORTAGE OF DWELLINGS
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CON

Thomas Langton Church

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. CHURCH:

Nothing.

Topic:   QUESTIONS PASSED AS ORDERS FOR RETURNS
Subtopic:   HOUSING POLICY
Sub-subtopic:   ELIMINATION OF SLUM CONDITIONS AND PROVISIONS FOR OVERCOMING SHORTAGE OF DWELLINGS
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CON

Denton Massey

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. MASSEY:

Nothing, the hon. member for Broadview (Mr. Church) says.

Topic:   QUESTIONS PASSED AS ORDERS FOR RETURNS
Subtopic:   HOUSING POLICY
Sub-subtopic:   ELIMINATION OF SLUM CONDITIONS AND PROVISIONS FOR OVERCOMING SHORTAGE OF DWELLINGS
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CON

Thomas Langton Church

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. CHURCH:

And they have done it well.

Topic:   QUESTIONS PASSED AS ORDERS FOR RETURNS
Subtopic:   HOUSING POLICY
Sub-subtopic:   ELIMINATION OF SLUM CONDITIONS AND PROVISIONS FOR OVERCOMING SHORTAGE OF DWELLINGS
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CON

Denton Massey

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. MASSEY:

That is at least encouraging. Let us consider what has been done in England. I have in my hand a publication of the Ministiy of Health dated March, 1936, on housing, house production, slum clearance, et cetera, in England and Wales. May I read a paragraph or two:

At the date of the armistice the number of houses in England and Wales was a little under 8,000,000. Between that date and the 31st March, 1936, 2,981,417 new houses were provided.

And further:

The total number of houses provided in the half-year ending 31st March, 1936, was 174,009. This constitutes a new record, the total being 5,282 more than in the half-year ending 31st March, 1935, the figure for which was a record at that time.

And still further:

Good progress is being made in slum clearance. During the year ending 31st March, 1936, 37,920 houses were demolished or closed under the act of 1930 as compared with 24,273 in the previous year. Up to 31st March. 1936, 80,611 houses (with accommodation for 380,042 persons) has been provided for the purpose of rehousing persons displaced under the act of 1930, nearly one-half of which were completed in the year ending on that date.

Now let us look at Sweden. Building schemes in Sweden are by no means new, for as early as 1849 Sweden began to contemplate seriously and actively her housing. Rapid changes in population had taken place in that country from 1850 to 1936. The change in population in the city of Stockholm, for example, has been an increase from 93,000 in 1850 to 534,000 in 1936, plus a suburban area with a population of 175,000. There has been set up a "build your own home" scheme, known as the Smastugebygge, which has been a preeminent success. Without going into details of the plan, it is possible for a man to make a down payment of only $80 for a beautiful little home worth $2,500 or $3,000, on a lot 80 feet by 125 feet, and to pay for it over a period of thirty years at the rate of $20 per month for the first ten years, $17.50 a month for the next ten years, and $7.50 per month for the last ten years, and these figures include ground rent, amortization of the loan, fire insurance, taxes, street cleaning, garbage removal, chimney sweeping and water service.

Topic:   QUESTIONS PASSED AS ORDERS FOR RETURNS
Subtopic:   HOUSING POLICY
Sub-subtopic:   ELIMINATION OF SLUM CONDITIONS AND PROVISIONS FOR OVERCOMING SHORTAGE OF DWELLINGS
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CCF

Abraham Albert Heaps

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.)

Mr. HEAPS:

What is the rate of interest?

Topic:   QUESTIONS PASSED AS ORDERS FOR RETURNS
Subtopic:   HOUSING POLICY
Sub-subtopic:   ELIMINATION OF SLUM CONDITIONS AND PROVISIONS FOR OVERCOMING SHORTAGE OF DWELLINGS
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CON

Denton Massey

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. MASSEY:

Various, usually about 3J

or 4 per cent. The "HSB" a cooperative society for the building of blocks of flats, has been so preeminently successful that to-day they can offer for sale an apartment consisting of a living room, three bedrooms, kitchen, bath and balcony, along with modern stainless

Housing Policy-Mr. Massey

steel kitchen, with an electric refrigerator, for $10.50 a month. And that is for purchasing the flat, not renting it. Tens of thousands of these flats have been built in Sweden in the last few years. I have in my hand two prospectuses of this scheme, if hon. members care to look at them. The environs of Stockholm are virtual parks, and are known quite justly as the garden suburbs of Stockholm. I hold in my hand a map of the western portion of the city, showing large areas purchased by the city in the course of its housing scheme.

How can we in Canada achieve such results as have the United Kingdom and: Sweden? Let us look at the problem for a moment. There are three main difficulties in the way, and let us recognize them. The first is that the federal government cannot force municipalities and provincial governments to introduce housing schemes and slum clearance plans. Second, there is our system of realty taxation. Third, have we the funds available to underwrite such schemes if, as and when approved by the provinces or the cities?

Let us attempt to answer the third difficulty first. As has been stated in this chamber this session, and concurred in by the Minister of Labour (Mr. Rogers), the number on relief is not decreasing rapidly. The total of the payments for relief by the federal, provincial and municipal governments during the last six years has been approximately $600,000,000, an annual payment amounting to, in round figures, $100,000,000. That is money being spent in many instances to keep men in idleness. Suppose such an amount as $100,000,000 were directed toward a housing scheme. It would mean that $80,000,000 would be put into the pockets of Canadian labour. If the average earnings were $1,200 a year-as low as that-it would mean that 67,000 men would be put to work. The government, we understand, can borrow money at three per cent or less; therefore the interest on money so borrowed would be $3,000,000 or less. Thus if the relief bill to the federal government were reduced by $3,000,000 a year the interest would be met by this saving alone. But I am suggesting putting the ^100,000,000 to productive use-not into public *works; not into buildings that will continue to 5be a drain upon this government; not into :roads that will involve further expense in maintenance. I am suggesting putting money rinto a housing scheme where there will be a return to the government, from the person who purchases or rents the house, of, let us say, five per cent, or $5,000,000 a year. This would show a profit to the government of $2,000,000 on a hundred million dollar housing scheme. True, the national debt is increased

by $100,000,000, but the money has gone into homes; it has not cost the taxpayer a penny; the houses are gradually being purchased and the debt is gradually being reduced by the home owner. It is in essence upon this simple principle that the modified housing schemes in effect in the United Kingdom and Sweden have been worked out.

But the Minister of Finance (Mr. Dunning) may well say, "Can we, dare we, increase the national debt?" Is not that a question to be answered by, "It depends upon the purpose." That is the way in which the question has been answered in other countries. And what is the purpose? To raise the morale of Canadians, to give people pride of ownership, to raise the standard of living, to reduce crime and delinquency, to improve public health, to provide jobs, to revive a broken-down yet vital industry, to give youth a chance, and at the same time to receive a five per cent, more or less, income from a three per cent loan.

Topic:   QUESTIONS PASSED AS ORDERS FOR RETURNS
Subtopic:   HOUSING POLICY
Sub-subtopic:   ELIMINATION OF SLUM CONDITIONS AND PROVISIONS FOR OVERCOMING SHORTAGE OF DWELLINGS
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February 10, 1937