Hon. J. E SINCL.AIR (Queens, for Mr. Kay) presented the ninth report of the select standing committee on agriculture and colonization, as follows:
The select standing committee on agriculture and colonization begs leave to submit/ its ninth report as follows: ,
Your committee have had under consideration a resolution and order of reference dated February 16, 1928, whereby it was resolved:
That whereas the protein content is an important factor in the value of wheat,
"Therefore be it resolved that in the opinion of this house, the National _ Council of Industrial and Scientific Research in conjunction with the Board of Grain Commissioners be asked to investigate and report on the feasibility of utilizing the protein content of wheat as a basic factor in the grading of that product.
And further be it resolved that this resolution be referred to the committee on agriculture and colonization for consideration and for such suggestions in connection with the grading and inspection of wheat as it deems advisable to pass on to the said national council and Board of Grain Commissioners."
Grading oj Wheat-Report of Committee
Pursuant to the said resolution and order of reference, your committee has agreed to the following conclusions, which it has passed on to the said national council and the Board of Grain Commissioners, viz:
1. From a price standpoint baking strength is an important element in wheat, and in the Canada Grain Act definitions of our higher grades, baking strength is determined by two factors-variety and percentage of hard red vitreous kernels.
2. In the resolution submitted to your committee it is proposed to amend the Grain Act so as to determine baking strength by the two factors-variety and quantity of protein-the latter to be determined by a chemical test and to be expressed in percentages.
3. In Canada, Great Britain, the United States and probably most other countries that consume Canadian wheat, baking strength is an important factor in determining its value; by strength is meant the quantity and quality of protein.
4. Except in the case of durum wheat, which at present is graded in a class by itself, and possibly one or two other varieties that are grown in relatively small quantities, the protein in the contract grades can be assumed to be of good quality.
5. All things considered, the amount of gluten, that is, of protein, seems, in the light of present day knowledge to be the nearest approach to an ideal index of baking strength available.
6. The cost of making the protein tests would range from 50 cents to 75 cents, and is not considered a serious difficulty notwithstanding the fact that laboratories would necessarily have to be installed at all inspection points. We would suggest that data be obtained as to cost of installing and maintaining laboratories.
7. The time required to make an individual test would be from one and a half hours to two _ hours. However, as daylight is not required for laboratory testing, and as a large number of tests may be conducted simultaneously, under sufficient organization operating 24 hours a day, no difficulty would be encountered in testing of cars and no delay in despatching cars to terminal points may be anticipated.
8. The definite proposal contained in the resolution could be put into effect in so far as car-lot shipments are concerned, but your committee is not yet satisfied that wheat sold locally in wagon-loads could take advantage of this scheme. A practice in vogue among members of the Kansas wheat pool whereby the farmer and elevator man forwarded samples jointly to the laboratories would seem to point the way to a solution of the difficulty concerning street wheat and this system should be investigated.
9. The introduction of protein as a factor in wheat grading would be an incentive to grow the best milling varieties of wheat. This we consider of great importance.
10. According to Mr. L. H. Newman, Dominion cerealist, Ottawa, and in the opinion of this committee, the following varieties are classed as desirable:-Early Red Fife. Marquis, Ruby, Red Bobs, Selections, Renfrew, Kitchener, Garnet and Reward.
11. It is highly desirable that the cereal division of the federal Department of Agriculture, and the several provincial governments working jointly, continue in their efforts to zone Canada's wheat area with a view to advising as to the variety, or varieties, most likely to prove satisfactory in each case.
12. So far however, as our export trade is concerned, there was not sufficient evidence submitted to the committee relative to the effect of the proposed change in the basis of grading to warrant your committee recommending its adoption at present. However, your committee recommends that a full enquiry into this phase of the question be instituted.
13. Re: Garnet wheat-In so far as evidence would show we are of the opinion this wheat which has hitherto been excluded from No. 1 northern should be eligible for that grade.
14. Re: Complaints of Liverpool Corn Trade Association.
Your committee believe that the complaint in the matter of No. 3 can be in some measure sustained, due principally to the inclusion in this grade of a large volume of improperly dried wheat.
Respecting the complaints regarding the general lowering of the standard of respective grades other than No. 3, we find that the evidence does not bear out this complaint.
Regarding the situation with respect to No. 3, we find that the Board of Grain Commissioners and the department are now fully alive to this situation. We recommend that steps be taken to prevent a continuation of this condition.
^ We recommend that the Department of Trade and Commerce and the Board of Grain Commissioners keep a careful check upon the quality of export wheat, and that samples of export shipments should regularly be secured and sent to the chief inspector and retained in his office for purpose of comparison; and also that the laboratory be required to make baking tests _ and report on samples of shipments regarding which complaint has been made.
15. The committee recommends: (a) temporary interchange of inspectors between the several inspection points in the western division.
(b) Uniformity of standards of grades from year to year is most necessary and for the purpose of comparison standard samples should be preserved for at least five years.
16. In order that the high quality of our export wheat be maintained, and in order to discourage, as far as possible, the growth of undesirable varieties of wheat, we would urge that one or more seed warehouses be estab-lished^ for the purpose of collecting and distributing seed of approved varieties, and that an experimental flour mill of sufficient size be established in order that experimental work in milling and baking may be conducted on a scale that will give results in line with those obtained in commercial mills.
The committee would suggest that the cost of construction and equipping these facilities may well be taken from surpluses of revenue over expenditures in the administration of the Grain Act and the revenue from terminal elevators overages in the western inspection division.
17. The committee recommends that the protein map prepared by Dr. Birchard, exhibited to the committee, be printed for distribution and that a similar map be prepared by the research laboratory for distribution as early as possible in each year.
18. This committee recommends that inspectors be appointed at all transfer points between the head of the lakes and the seaboard, whose duty it will be to prevent any mixing of wheat so that the quality and condition of grades as fixed by final inspection will be maintained.