out to working men, to manufacturers, and producers throughout the length and breadth of the land. We gave subsidies to the provinces of twelve million dollars which is spent in the provinces and is coming back to us in an indirect way. We gave in grants for secular education, for highways and agriculture, eight million dollars, and in ordinary expenditure about one hundred and twenty-six million dollars, all spent in Canada, and paid to Canadians. Our total expenditure for the year was about four hundred and thirty-four million. I venture to state that out of that sum three hundred and seventy-five million dollars remained in Canada, that being one of the reasons why this country is as prosperous as it is to-day. If hon. members will look at the deposits in the savings banks and in the chartered banks of the country, they will find that in spite of the fact that the Canadians have one billion seven hundred millions invested in government bonds, the deposits in the chartered banks and in the savings banks have materially increased during the last year. Therefore, I think it can be very well said that, so far as the central part of Canada is concerned there is prosperity and considerable of it.
What is the matter, may I ask, with the Maritime provinces? I am not going to speak of the prairie provinces, because there are so many honourable gentlemen from those provinces who know so much more about them than I do that it would be presumptuous on my part to speak about their difficulties. But I .do claim to know something about the difficulties of the Maritime provinces. What are the difficulties? What is the cause of this depression? Why is it that so many of our manufactories are idle? Why is it that the grass grows upon the streets of many of the seaport towns of those provinces? I give you the answer, Mr. Speaker, in two words. Tariff and transportation are the causes of it. We did not feel the effects of the National Policy as long as we had cheap transportation. We did not feel it so severely as we feel it now, so long as we could transport our manufactured goods from the Maritime provinces into the middle of Canada or the West at a low rate of freight. But, a few years ago, when the late government merged the Intercolonial with the commercial railways of Canada, and raised the freight rates to their present position, we found ourselves not only up against a tariff wall, but up against a freight wall, and between the two walls we are being squeezed to death.
Let us stress for a moment what happened in the Maritime provinces. Hon. members will pardon me if I go over this matter, not at as great length as I have on other occasions in the House, but to some extent to follow up my arguments. In the Maritime provinces, let it be understood and known, before confederation we were a comparatively rich people. The trade per capita of New Brunswick, let me tell hon. members, in 1864 was almost double that of the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, known as old Canada, and the trade of Nova Scotia was materially greater than the trade of Canada. We owned at that time in Nova Scotia over three thousand ships which sailed out of our ports carrying products of the farms, forests, mines and fisheries. Where did they carry that produce? They earned it especially to the New England states and to the West Indies. We had at that time seventeen thousand of our sons upon the sea, manning ships, sailing through the different waters, particularly those which I have mentioned. We did not desire confederation. Let that also be distinctly understood; and so great an optimist as my very distinguished predecessor in the representation of Cumberland, that great Canadian, Sir Charles Tupper, Baronet, in 1864, three years before confederation, made the statement in the House of Assembly in Nova Scotia that the difficulties of confederation were insuperable. Shortly after that our men met in Charlottetown to form a Maritime union. While there a delegation from Upper and Lower Canada, the greatest galaxy of orators probably that ever sailed the Maritime seas-Sir John Macdonald, Hon. George Brown, D'Arcy McGee, Sir Hector Langevin, and many others of the great political stars of the country-came in upon our little convention, and said, "Walk into our parlor of confederation." The representatives of the Maritime provinces said, "No, there are too great difficulties." They said, "What are they? What are you afraid of." Our representatives said, "We are afraid, first that you will raise a tariff in this country that will by a retaliatory tariff interfere with our trade with that country which nature intended we should trade with, namely the New England states of America. If we are shut out from that market, where are we? Where is our market to come from?" With honeyed words, these orators said, "We will give you a new market to take the place of this market if you should lose it." Our delegates said to them, "How can you give us that market? You are too far away." They replied, "We will build you a means of communication, namely the Intercolonial, in order that if you
The Address-Mr. Logan
lose the United States market you will have a market equally as good in the central parts of Canada." Our people listened to them. They did not however take their word; they insisted it should be in the bond, and if hon. members will read section 145 of the British North America Act they will find set out in that section not only the promised building of the Intercolonial, but the reasons why it would be built, namely to secure the consent of the people of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to enter confederation. For fifty years the promises given at the time of confederation were fairly well kept. As I say, we did not feel the effect of the National Policy or high protection in this country as long as we were able to send our goods from the Maritime provinces to the West. We used to boast in the young city in which I live that we sent over half of our products to western Canada. We send mighty little of our production to western Canada or to central Canada today, because we are shut out of those markets by the exorbitant rates that have been put into effect upon the railways of our country, the Intercolonial included.
It is difficult for us to make the people of the rest of Canada understand our grievance in this matter, and it is difficult for them to know just how sensitive we are. There are many still living that remember the fight for confederation. It is still an unpopular subject to discuss. They know, and we, their sons, know that those solemn promises were made and we know that when the Intercolonial railway ceased to be a part of the constitution of this country and was placed among commercial railways of Canada and under the same rates of freight, a crime was committed against the people of the Maritime provinces. We are here to-day again to ask and demand that those promises made to us in 1864, 1865 and 1866, promises which I could repeat here for an hour if I cared to weary you, must be kept if we are to be at all prosperous and to become the part of confederation that we should be.
Before leaving this subject, let me say that we in the Maritime provinces feel grateful for some things that have been done by this government. Under the old government, our whole road was controlled in Toronto by [DOT] Canadian Northern officials, men who had no sympathy with us and with whom we did not have much acquaintance. This government has changed that. We have had established at Moncton headquarters for the government railways in the Maritime provinces. They are in charge of a Maritime province man. The general superintendent is
a Maritime province man, and equally pleasant is the fact that the general traffic manager is also a Maritime province man. We have, as I say, many things to be thankful for to this government for ameliorating the conditions that existed there four or five years ago. But I want to say now to the government and to the country that until conditions are made better as regards freight rates in the Maritime provinces, not from an economic standpoint altogether, but from a constitutional standpoint, we never can be satisfied in those provinces, and the government is bound to find that out. They found it out in the constituency of Halifax. They found it out in the constituency of Kent. Nobody in Halifax spoke about protection; even the hon. member for St. John and Albert (Mr. Baxter) did not talk protection in Halifax. He did not talk protection in Kent. Why? That would be ridiculous; nobody wanted to hear about protection. But what he did talk about was the grievances of the Maritime provinces, and the people feel those grievances and they must be remedied.