gruous that a small province like Prince Edward Island, or, indeed, any province of Canada, shonld have a smaller representation in the House of Commons than in the Senate. I shall have occasion at a later stage in the session to speak of the principles which seem to have guided the fathers of Confederation in establishing the representation of the various provinces in the Senate. For the present it is sufficient to say this: that there does not seem to have been any very fixed principle in their minds, and that the arrangement as to representation in the Senate appears to have been almost purely an arbitrary one. In the United States, as hon. members of this House know, each state of the Union has a fixed representation of two in the Senate. In other federations the membership is determined not in that way, but according to the population, but I am not aware of any federation in which the membership of any province or state is less in the lower house than in the upper house. If I remember correctly the provisions of the Australian Commonwealth Act, the basis fixed in the Commonwealth of Australia is that each province shall, as nearly as possible, have two members in the lower house for each member that it has in the upper house.
There is another consideration, not of a legal character, and not one of controlling or determining influence, which might possibly be taken into consideration in this House in regard to the province of Prince Edward Island. I shall speak a little later of the reasons that have led both political parties in this country to fix a higher unit of representation in cities than in rural communities. That principle, of course, gives a larger representation to those who live upon the land in this country than it does to those who dwell in cities. The reasons for that I will come to a little later, but so far as Prince Edward Island is concerned it has to be borne in mind that the population of that province is almost wholly a rural population, and that upon any basis laid down by either political party in this country, and upon the basis which I hope will be laid down by the committee to whom this Bill will go, if the population of Prince Edward Island, although less than 100,000, were situated in any other province of Canada, it would have the right to a membership of at least four in the House of Commons. I do not know whether I make absolutely clear to hon. gentlemen of this House what lies in my mind, but that, I think, is the fact. If without being limited
by the terms of a constitutional act, as we are to-day, we were to take into consideration a rural population of nearly 100,000 in any of the other provinces of Canada, we would, I think, upon any basis that has ever been accepted or is likely to be accepted, give a representation of not less than -four members to that population.
It is my duty next to lay before the House -and I do it purely for the purpose of convenience-the results of the census of 1911. I may say that there was a slight error in the census figures as at first published, and the figures here given are from the second and corrected edition of the census returns. Taken in alphabetical order, the population of the different provinces according to the last census is as follows:- Alberta, 374,663; British Columbia, 392,480; Manitoba, 455,614; New Brunswick, 351,889; Nova Scotia, 492,338; Ontario, 2,523,274; Prince Edward Island, 93,728; Quebec, 2,003,232; Saskatchewan, 492,432; Yukon, 8,512. Taking the population of Quebec, 2,003,232, and dividing it by 65, we obtain the unit of 30,819.
Applying this unit to the population of the various provinces of Canada, we find that Alberta is entitled to a membership of 12.12. The decimal is disregarded, and Alberta receives a membership of twelve. In the ease of British Columbia, the number is 12-70. The decimal being in excess of 50, British Columbia receives a membership of 13. In the case of Manitoba, the number is 14-78. The decimal being in exexcess of 50, Manitoba will receive a membership of 15. In the case of New Brunswick, the number is 11-42. The decimal being less than 50 is disregarded, and New Brunswick receives a membership of 11. In the case of Nova Scotia, the number is 15-97. The decimal being in excess of 50, Nova Scotia receives a membership of 16. In the case of Ontario, the number is 81-87. The decimal being in excess of 50, Ontario receives a membership of 82. In the case of Prince Edward Island, the number is 3-04, and, if the provisions of the British North America Act are strictly observed and the considerations to which I called attention a moment ago are not regarded, the representation of Prince Edward Island would be 3. In the case of Quebec there is a fixed representation of 65. In the case of Saskatchewan, the number is 15-97. The decimal being in excess of 50, Saskatchewan will receive a representation of 16. It is not proposed to interfere with the representation of the Yukon Territory.
It will be observed that, according to what I have proposed, the representation of On-
tario will be decreased from 86 to 82. That of Quebec remains at the fixed number, 65. That of Nova Scotia will be decreased from 18 to 16. That of New Brunswick will be decreased from 13 to 11. That of Manitoba will be increased from 10 to 15. That of Saskatchewan will be increased from 10 to 16. That of Alberta will be increased from 7 to 12. That of British Columbia will be increased from 7 to 13. Prince Edward Island, according to the letter of the British North America Act, would have its representation decreased from 4 to 3.