May 15, 1911

CON

Samuel Barker

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. BARKER.

May I ask the hon. gentleman if he were writing such a letter to a man who had received an appointment to a post office, would he ask him to call at his office and be instructed in his duties ?

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LIB

William Erskine Knowles

Liberal

Mr. KNOWLES.

No.

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LIB

Sydney Arthur Fisher (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. FISHER.

That letter does not say that; it does not contain those words.

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LIB

William Erskine Knowles

Liberal

Mr. KNOWLES.

No, I would not ask him to come in and be instructed. If hon. gentlemen would stick to the letter, or bring a letter which says something about instructions, or else stop talking about instructions it would be more to the point. I would think nothing of it if the hon. member for Hamilton (Mr. Barker) wrote a gentleman in Dundas advising him that a certain thing had been done in his interest, in the departments at Ottawa and saying in closing the letter: If you happen to be in the city, drop in and see me. Would we have read into that letter something greatly to the discredit of the hon. member for Hamilton; would we have said that he was a man of the most unworthy kind? No, would we not say rather that it was an innocent remark such as any man might put into a letter he was writing to a political friend, or indeed to any one else. That letter is, to my mind, the silliest kind of thing to base an argument upon. I think the argument based on that letter by the opposition, and on which they found a non-confidence motion is one of the most nonsensical I have ever heard during the six or seven sessions I have been in this House. I may have forgotten some of these non-confidence motions, there were very many so nonsensical, but I think that possibly this is the weakest case that has ever been made out by the opposition in this House from their point of view.

I wish now to deal with the Prince Albert election case, and I may say to begin with that it has as much to do with the taking of the census as the Indian mutiny has. What connection it has with the census, I cannot see, and I do not believe that any sensible man can. One Sinclair and one Moberley, and some one else, away back in 1905, a few weeks after we first became a province, went out, as my hon. friend from Macdonald (Mr. Staples), with his ponderous reasoning says, to watch jack-

rabits and eat pickled pigs' feet. And these men did what was wrong. The result was that two or three Liberals were coralled for having broken an election ordinance of the Northwest Territories such as it was then. They came back, they were punished. There lived in the province of Saskatchewan some of the very cleverest lawyers who are supporters of that provincial rights party; men who could have prosecuted these offenders, and if they thought they did wrong could have ensured that they were prosecuted to the hilt; men like the Hon. Frederick William Gordon Haultain, who was eight or nine years attorney general of the Northwest Territories, and who with his own pen had written the election ordinance they broke. Why didn't he, seeing that the courts of the land were open to_ every one, swing wide their doors and himself lay, or have some one else lay a complaint for forgery or perjury. Then there was Mr. J. T. Brown, now one of the judges of the Supreme Court of Saskatchewan who, had the provincial rights party been elected, would have been their attorney general no doubt, and there was every opportunity for Liberal and Conservative alike to prosecute these men to the hilt for just as serious a charge as it was possible to bring against them. There is no reflection on the Liberal party in connection with that matter. It is not the business of the Liberal party any more than of the Conservative party to prosecute men, even though they be party friends. But these men were prosecuted. They were fined by the magistrates who had been appointed by Mr. Haultain himself on the testimony produced before them such as it was. I merely mention that fact to show that there could be no suspicion surrounding their trial, and what the magistrate thought was a just punishment was meted out to them, and they bore it. Now, why is the Minister of Agriculture to be called upon to answer for all this? What connection is there between that and the appointing of some census commissioners in the province of Manitoba?

It is said by these gentlemen opposite that this man, Mr. Perry, some months afterwards, down in the city of Begina, wrote a few letters to these men telling them how the litigation was proceeding, and telling them that if they were to return they no doubt would be prosecuted, and stating that if they wished to avoid meeting a charge of that kind at that time, they had better not return within the jurisdiction of that court. There is nothing *criminal about that. I would dare to say that any lawyer would write such a letter to his client; I would dare to say that any friend would send such a letter to another friend under similar circumstances. Even

if I were not a lawyer, and not acting as solicitor, if I had a friend who wanted to know liow litigation was proceeding, would not feel that I would demean myself by giving him any information that any man in the land had to give that was present on the ground. Everybody knew these things which Mr. Perry was writing to that man, and there is absolutely no guilt resting on Mr. Perry, and there is absolutely nothing to connect him with a crime, and there is not even the slightest suspicion cast this afternoon in the remarks of gentlemen opposite that Mr. Perry knew anything about that offence before it was committed, or that he had ever dreamed of such a thing. The only cjmrge they can make is that he knew of the threatened charge afterwards, and that he did a friendly act for those who were then awav from the jurisdiction of the courts ot Saskatchewan. .

Let me say, however, since it has been brought into the discussion, that it was to the credit of the Saskatchewan government -and reflection has been cast upon that government this afternoon-that at the very first opportunity they gave that seat to the Conservative who had been the candidate. As soon as Dr. Tyreman knew of the gruve irregularity that had been charged he endeavouredto place his resignation before the proper authorities that the seat might be vacated and go to Mr. Donaldson; but according to our election ordinance, while the seat was under protest it was not possible until the litigation was over that he could offer his resignation, and the question was also before the Privileges and Elections Committee of the Saskatchewan house, i will admit that it was unfortunately a long time before Mr. Donaldson was able to take the seat, but I have never heard complaint [DOT] criticism on that score. At all events, ie fact is that on the very first day it was issible for the government of the Horn falter Scott to make such a motion they ltroduced a motion at the hands of the ttorney General of Saskatchewan vacating lat seat, and then by special Act of the gislature of Saskatchewan Mr. Donaldson, ie Conservative member, represented that mstituency as the occupant of that seat >r the rest of the parliament.

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?

Mr CAMPBELL.

How many years did , take to find out that Mr. Donaldson was 'ected?

I think two years.

Yes, a little over two

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LIB

William Erskine Knowles

Liberal

Mr. KNOWLES.

Mr. CAMPBELL ears.

Mr. KNOWLES

iVir. iviNu vv xjxlio. I said there was an un-rtunately long delay, but I have never yet ;ard the criticism offered that that delay is avoidable. I know it was done just as at as the procedure of the legislative as-mbly and the litigation in the courts

would allow of its being done. At anyrate, as soon as it was possible to do so they did it.

Let me say, in conclusion, that probably the last man in this government that should have reflections cast upon him for his conduct in the discharge of his duty and in the administration of his department, is the Minister of Agriculture. I was pretty well pleased with the Minister of Agriculture when he stood up and said in effect, though not in words: that it was practically his own business where he got his recommendations from, that he declined to tell whence they came, and that he took responsibility for ail his acts. I am pleased with that declaration of the Minister of Agriculture, and I trust that our friends opposite will read between the lines and, seeing that they are so keen on reading ' instructions/ see that there is a little instruction meant for them in that. And, I think that what the Minister of Agriculture meant is: that the Liberals are governing this country, that they make the appointments to office, that they get their recommendations where in their wisdom they think right. The ministers no doubt use their own judgment, and they seek the counsel of their friends, and if they wish it sometimes of their foes, but when it comes to the last resort I think what the Minister of Agriculture meant was that the sixty, seventy or eighty hon. gentlemen opposite should understand that for the present at least the Laurier government is governing this country and making the appointments to office. And this idea of gentlemen opposite, that because for a few days they may hold us up and waste our time and defer the business of the House, that, therefore, they are governing the country, is absolutely an illusion on their part. They are governing the country only as a man somehow can interfere with the lines of communication a little here and a little there, but when it comes to the long run they will find that just as for the last fifteen years so for many years to come the hand of Sir Wilfrid Laurier will hold the reins, and that the chariot of good government will be driven by him, and this country continue to prosper under his guidance.

Now, suppose that Mr. Perry did make some unfortunate recommendations; suppose he did recommend some unfit men, and suppose his recommendations were accepted -although we have not learned that he had any patronage; in fact, we learn that he had not and that he has no connection with the government directly or indirectly; suppose that he did make recommendations, why even a Conservative organizer can make recommendations if he wishes, but that is another matter-well, suppose he did make recommendations, and suppose the minister appointed his nominees, these men would go among the people, the people would know Mr. KNOWLES

them and it is the people in the long run who will judge of what this government does. It is the people of Canada who, in every election since 1896, have judged what this government has done. We have heard a lot about the polling booths this afternoon, but in 1896, in 1900, in 1904, in 1908, despite the slanders that were uttered, the Liberal party went into these same polling booths in every constituency from the Atlantic to the Pacific and the people, time after time by overwhelming majorities, declared to Sir Wilfrid Laurier: Come back and govern the country again; we want to be governed by the Liberals and not by the Conservatives. And, Sir, we on this side of the House are not afraid that the Minister of Agriculture by this or any other act of his in the administration of his department will lose the confidence of the people of Canada or will do anything other than what he has always done, and that is to conduct his department with great credit to himself and to those who support him, and with enormous benefit to the welfare and prosperity of this country. We are not afraid of the impression our census enumerators will make in the country, nor have we any doubt that the Minister of Agriculture, in this or in any other act of administration will, as he has always done, conduct it so that those who support him will be prouder of hirp than ever. Hon. gentlemen opposite talk of the recommending system. Let me tell them that it will be a long day before they will serve any practical trouble with the recommending system, for it will, I believe, be many a long year before it comes their turn to do any recommending to offices. I am not surprised at our hon. friends from Manitoba being desirous of prolonging this debate as long as they can, for, without referring to the occupant of any particular seat, I think they have come to realize that their voters are not altogether pleased with the manner in which they have represented them during the larger part of this session; and so hon. gentlemen desire to bring up some other issue, something that they are not afraid to talk about among their constituents. It is more than pleasing to find supporters of the good old Conservative party in Manitoba shedding tears over the guilt of this government -men who support and follow a government, starting from the man who builds railways into sand pits that he owns

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CON

Glenlyon Campbell

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. CAMPBELL.

Order, Mr. Speaker. I rise to a point of order. No bon. member of this House has any right to throw out any insinuations against the premier of my province.

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LIB

William Erskine Knowles

Liberal

Mr. KNOWLES.

Mr Speaker, since it is so offensive to the hon. gentleman, I have no desire to hurt his feelings. He is always so careful of the feelings of others

that I shall not go further in speaking of the Conservative party of Manitoba, but will just say to hon. members of this House who are not familiar with the west that they are pretty much of a kind from the top to the bottom.

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CON

William James Roche

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. W. J. ROCHE (Marquette).

Mr. Speaker, if the hon. gentleman who has just taken his seat can regard the remarks which he has just addressed to the House as a defence against the accusations made against the Minister of Agriculture and against Mr. Perry in this House this afternoon and to-night, then he is very easily satisfied, and we on this side of the House have no complaint to make. The hon. gentleman, at the outset of his remarks, complained of an hon. gentleman on this side having read a confidential circular or letter that was issued by Mr. Perry to a private individual in the constituency of Regina ; and yet the hon. gentleman sits behind a government that has been guilty of publishing correspondence of a private character sent by private individuals all over the country to the Postmaster General prior to the coming into power of this Lauder government, of which we have heard so much from the hon. member for Moosejaw (Mr. Knowles) to-night-publishing that private correspondence in a blue-book, and sending it broadcast throughout the Dominion. I have not heard the hon. gentleman condemn any action of that kind on the part of a minister of the Crown. I think the taking of the census is a matter that should be absolutely free from any taint or suspicion of party politics. By that I do not claim that the poiitical proclivities of the census enumerators .should be completely ignored, because I recognize that in this country we have party government, and in such appointments the party in power will always give the preference to their own political friends. With that I havp no fault to find. But when the government ignore the character of the appointees, and when they select Liberal organizers who bear unsavoury reputations *and appoint them, not only for their qualifications, but as a reward for party services of a most questionable character as has occurred in this instance, and in many instances in the past in the province of Manitoba, it is a different matter. As the hon. member for Selkirk has truly said, it is most unfortunate that the Liberal organizers in the province of Manitoba for years back have been men who have been guilty of questionable transactions which have' resulted in bringing into disrepute not only themselves but the party they represent. It is only necessary to refer to the gentleman who preceded Mr. Perry as the Liberal organizer, Mr. R. E. Leach, the author of 'the thin red line,' by which he

disfranchised a larger number of electors, and who was rewarded afterwards with an office in the Department of the Interior carrying $2,000 a year and expenses, and whose expenses have been so outrageous that the Auditor General has taken him strictly to task for them in his report of this year. It is also worthy of notice that nearly every person who worked with Mr. Leach at that time, and assisted him in disfranchising the electors, has also received a position under this government. It is only necessary to refer to Messrs. Maeleod, Neigh, Ayotte and Duggan. It seems strange that men who are guilty of acts of the most questionable character on behalf of the party are able to hold up the government and secure almost any position they ask. Now, the hon. Minister of Agriculture was not quite so frank with the hon. member for Macdonald (Mr. Staples), as he should have been on Friday wThen answering his questions. In that somewhat important air which he sometimes arrogates to himself, he replied to some of the questions in the most emphatic manner. For instance, when he was asked if certain enumerators were appointed, he honestly and frankly stated that they were. When he was asked, however, who recommended them, he declined to answer, though to-day he is not nearly so reluctant to answer the question, for he did admit that Mr. Perry, the Liberal organizer, nominated some of the enumerators. To the third question, did Mr. Perry ask the enumerators to come into his office to be schooled, he most emphatically replied, no. We can all read between the lines and can realize that when Mr. Perry wrote that letter inviting the enumerators to come into his office and be schooled, he did not mean in order to count the heads for census purposes, but to school them to count political heads in order that this information might be utilized by the Liberal party in the province. This information would come in very well at this particular time, because in the province of Manitoba they are just now in the act of revising the voters' lists, in connection with which the information that could be secured by these census enumerators by turning them into party hacks would be of a most useful character. The information would also be most useful to this government when the redistribution takes place a few months hence, and in the_election that is expected to take place in the near future. I have no doubt this was the schooling that Mr. Perry referred to when he extended his invitation to these enumerators to come into his office. It has been said, oh, he merely stated in this letter: 'I have the honour to advise you that you have been recommended.' I would ask the Minister of Agriculture whether this gentleman to whom

this letter was addressed was not appointed census enumerator.

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LIB

Sydney Arthur Fisher (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. FISHER.

I really do not know. I do not know to whom the letter was addressed.

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CON

William James Roche

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. ROCHE.

It was addressed to John Colnin, Dickens post office. The minister cannot tell us whether he was appointed enumerator or not, but evidently Mr. Perry was quite sure, or he would not have delimitated the area in which he was to work or sent him the rates, or asked for an answer within 10 days, or invited him to his office in Winnipeg on the first occasion he visited that city. There can be no doubt that this gentleman was not only recommended but appointed to the position of census enumerator.

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LIB

Henry Robert Emmerson

Liberal

Mr. EMMERSON.

What is the date of this letter?

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CON

William James Roche

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. ROCHE.

April the 17th of this year. The hon. member for Moosejaw (Mr. Knowles) has asked what connection had' the Prince Albert election to do with the selection of enumerators ifor Manitoba. Well, if the Prince Albert election has no direct connection with the selection of enumerators for Manitoba, it has a very direct connection with the gentleman through whose hands aparently these enumerators are being appointed, I refer to Mr. Perry. According to the correspondence read tonight, this man Perry stood in a very unenviable light indeed in connection with the shielding these fugitives from justice, who had to flee from the country because of their doings in the Prince Albert election when working the Liberal machine. That was one of the most disgraceful episodes in the political history of this country. Fancy these deputy returning officers and poll clerks being sent away out north to hold polls hundreds of miles from Prince Albert. They did not go within a hundred miles of the places where they were to hold the polls, but they sat down on the prairie, took out their poll books and poll boxes, and wrote in the poll books the names of 150 fictitious individuals-lamong them, as my hon. friend from Macdonald (Mr. Staples) has said the Rabbit family predominated-and they stuffed the ballot boxes with 150 ballots, every one of which was marked in favour of the Liberal candidate. And they came back to Prince Albert with their boxes and their poll books and hailed the result as a great victory in the far north for the Liberal candidate, morally and otherwise. They made out their false returns. Forgery and perjury are none too strong names to characterize their actions. When arrested and brought before the court, who was it appeared to prosecute them and who appeared in their behalf? Instead of the Mr. ROCHE.

Dominion government prosecutor appearing before the court to see that justice was done, he appeared in their defence. They pleaded guilty and were fined. The deputy returning officers were fined $.200 each and the poll clerks $100 each for having stuffed the ballot boxes land made false returns. The fines 'were paid by a clerk in the Crown prosecutors office. Where did the money come from? I think we -.need not stretch our imagination very much to say that it could have come from no other source than the Liberal campaign fund. But when recount of the ballots took place, after these men had been fined and after it was proven that 150 ballots were fictitious, the judge holding the recount, counted evejy one of these as legitimate. That may have been technically within the law, but there is not a man within the sound of my voice, be he Liberal or Conservative who will not siay it was travesty of justice.

After the 'trial some of these deputy returning officers made themselves scarce. They fled south of the boundary line, and then this correspondence took place between Perry and these fugitives from justice, which the hon. member for Moose jaw (Mr. Knowles) looks upon as so innocent that he, as a lawyer, would do it fox any of his clients. Well, I do not think the hon. gentleman will find his ethics endorsed by other practitioners at the bar; but in any event Mr. Perry was not acting as a lawyer for these men, but as the head of the Liberal machine in that province, as the Liberal organizer, and be was accessory to those offences, after if not, before, because he was doing his best to keep these men out of the country lest there should be still greater rascalities unearthed if they remained or reappeared on the scene.

I do not propose to go through all this correspondence, but wish to refer to a few paragraphs in this correspondence which the hon. member for Moosejaw tells us was of such an innocent character. In the letter of June 10, I find these paragraphs :

Tories threatening further prosecution.

I have heard it said that the missing deputies would he as well to keep out of sight, I think this is undoubtedly correct.

This is the gentleman against whom the hon. member for Moosejaw says there has not been found anything wrong by reason of anything that transpired in that election or subsequently. The following day Perry wrote again:

Tories are talking of other prosecutions and are, of course, pleased at the results so far.

Prudence would, I should judge, suggest to the absent deputies that their safety lies in remaining away.

This is taken from correspondence between Perry and Neilson, and Perry was

not then writing as a lawyer to a client, but as the Liberal organizer advising these people to stay away until the trouble had blown over, as they would be subject to more prosecutions, should they Teappear on the scene.

Let me quote one more paragraph out of a letter written by Perry on October, the 4th, to Neilson, who acted as deputy returning officer:

The 'Standard' here last night published a story that if the case went against Sinclair, he was going to squeal.

Squeal about what? Squeal on whom? Evidently there was something which had not yet been brought to light and which Perry was afraid might come out if further prosecutions took place. But he expresses his confidence in the returning officer Sinclair by saying:

But I do not believe that, as he would never do anything to help the Tories, he is too sore on them. Kindly consider this as absolutely confidential and. done in your interests.

This came from Perry who evidently had the ear of the Department of Agriculture, if not the minister, and who assumed the responsibility of sending out a circular under the seal of confidence to his appointee notifying him of his appointment and inviting him to his office on the first opportunity. In a letter written on October 20th, 1906, Perry goes on to say to Neilson:

I am also informed on the best authority that the Tories say that any or all of the fellows who are away will be arrested immediately on their return, which quite bears out what I have understood all along they were intending to do.

I, therefore, cannot hold out any hope for your early return. Things will settle down after awhile when the by-election is over, and after the end of next session of the House. I shall be pleased to give you any further information if possible to obtain it and you so desire.

All through this correspondence, Perry as Liberal organizer, is trying to keep these men, who perpetrated these frauds on the electors, out of the country lest further exposures might result, should they return to the disadvantage of the Liberal party.

In connection with that election, I remember a memorable saying of the Prime Minister of that province (Mr. Scott). When the returns were coming in that evening from the thickly settled portions of the province and they were going against the government, Mr. Scott, in addressing his audience, said: ' Wait; until you hear from the back townships.' Evidently he knew what these returns from the back townships would be and was not ignorant of what was transpiring in that portion of the country.

It is only necessary to look at the signature to the circular to show what connection there was between this government and the Liberal organizer. The Minister of Agriculture asks us to believe that any person might send out such a circular as that. Well, I wonder if a Conservative organizer sent out a letter like that, what the minister would have done. I fancy he would very soon have called him down. He would soon take him to task for arrogating to himself the authority to notify the enumerators as to their pay, as to the positions to which they were appointed, as to the territory they were supposed to cover, and practically to extend to them an invitation to come in and be schooled in his office. And when he winds up his letter ' Yours in the good cause ' he emphasizes the fact that it was not for the census alone that he was writing, but rather that he might use them as political partisans-to count heads for the party as 'well as for the census. I think the minister (Mr. Fisher) should accept the motion of the hon. member for Macdonald. The minister says that for fifteen years past they have recognized that public office is a public trust. They have taken a very peculiar way to exhibit that to the country, if we may judge them by the appointments they have made. Leach, Mr. Perry, Ayotte, Neigh, McLeod, Duggan-all these men who figured in these scandalous transactions of the past have been provided for by one member of the government or another. Ingram, the organizer who tampered with the lists on election day, and who was also Liberal organizer for a time-I do not think he is now; I believe that Mr. Perry is the organizer-has also been provided for. I say the minister takes a peculiar way of showing his belief that public office is a public trust when he refuses to receive the motion put forward by the member for Macdonald. I think that one of his first duties in view of what has been brought to his attention to-day is to call Mr. Perry down in short order and show that he is really in earnest in saying that Mr. Perry has done this without authority. Mr. Perry should be notified to that effect, and that duty devolves upon the Minister of Agriculture, because he is the one whom this parliament will hold responsible.

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LIB

Sydney Arthur Fisher (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. FISHER.

Does the hon. member know anything against this enumerator or against any of the others appointed?

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CON

William James Roche

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. ROCHE.

I am not talking about the enumerators, but

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LIB

Sydney Arthur Fisher (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. FISHER.

The enumerator is the only official I have in this discussion.

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CON

Joseph Elijah Armstrong

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. ARMSTRONG.

I desire to call attention to the fact that the people of the

west are not the only ones who have resting upon them the burden of such men as Mr. Perry. In western Ontario we have a gentleman by the name of George M. Reid, and the minister may possibly tell us what connection he has with the western district in reference to the census taking. I see it stated that:

J. C. Macpherson, special census commissioner, is in London, and will be here for the next five days, instructing the census commissioners who have been appointed to supervise the census taking in this western peninsula. To-day, Mr. Macpherson met the commissioners from Lambton, Essex and Kent county.

I find in another column of the same paper the following:

Liberal club to approve the list.

Commissioner Scateherd presents his census appointments for revision.

Says he gave the list to George M. Reid.

Majority of forty appointments find they have not the qualifications.

Mr. Scateherd selected the brightest and best men according to his judgment, but he had to present their names to a committee in the city of London, the head of which was Mr. George M. Reid, whom surely the minister remembers in connection with the election frauds of years gone by, and how he was brought before the courts in Toronto. Yet he is still seen strongly in evidence in the western districts of Ontario in handling the affairs of the Census Department, a department, I am sure the minister must agree with me in saying, that can best be dealt with by taking it out of politics altogether. But let me read something that this paper has to say in reference to this matter:

Many young men of this city who made application for a position as census enumerators will be disappointed. Most of them will not secure the appointment.

E. W. Scateherd, who is to have charge of the taking of the census, received something like 105 applications, and practically appointed the forty men required to do the work.

A committee of three of the Liberal politicians of the city was appointed to go over the appointments and ratify them.

I would like to ask the minister who are the three men in London, who are appointed to carefully pick out of the group nominated by Mr. Scateherd men to be enumerators for that district.

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LIB

Sydney Arthur Fisher (Minister of Agriculture)

Liberal

Mr. FISHER.

No.

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CON

Joseph Elijah Armstrong

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. ARMSTRONG.

The minister is not aware. But it appears that three men with George M. Reid as their leader are appointed to take charge of choosing the men who are to take the census in the city of London. This committee went to work, and of their work the newspaper says:

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CON

Joseph Elijah Armstrong

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. ARMSTRONG.

The result is that but few of the names originally chosen are on the revised list. The majority of them got the axe and others were appointed in their places.

And on the same page of this newspaper appears a picture of George M. Reid and over it are the words 'Did he wield the axe?' And underneath is this explanation :

Topic:   SUPPLY-EXPERIMENTAL FRUIT AND VEGETABLE FARMS AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION.
Subtopic:   H. E. PERRY.
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May 15, 1911