April 22, 1908

LIB
LIB

Gilbert Howard McIntyre

Liberal

Mr. G. H. McINTYRE.

You cannot give publicity without doing it, you cannot let your country be known without reaching the undesirable and stimulating him to come to you. It has been frequently said that the best immigration agent is the successful settler, but the successful settler Mr. G. H. McINTYRE.

stimulates the undesirable as well as the desirable. It is inevitable, the news cannot be concealed from the undesirable, he knows the advantage of Canada and everything that stimulates the desirable will attract the attention of the undesirable and stimulate him as well. That is a condition which we have to face, and there is where I think my hon. friends have failed to see the real danger in immigration, the real point to be safeguarded. If I were inclined to suggest-that the thought in the mind of my hon. friend who is moving this amendment (Mr. Monk) is political gain, then his suggestion (hat the bonus is paid to everybody would perhaps be good politics, but I do not think that any one who carefully and calmly examines the question will find that the bonus is the serious matter, the serious matter is the restriction at the port of entry into Canada, the sieve through which you pass the immigrants, the test you make. You must expect that the undesirable in other lands will hear of this good land as rapidly as the desirable. Dealing with the bounty system and the effect of the bonus in stimulating the undesirable rather than the desirable, let me read to my hon. friend the opinion of a very hon. gentleman in this House who spoke on the matter. I may say that I agree entirely with the views expressed. The words are ;

It does not seem to me that the payment of bonuses in itself has any tendency to bring in a less rather than a more desirable class of people into this country; that would depend altogether upon the way you worked it out.

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LIB
LIB

Gilbert Howard McIntyre

Liberal

Mr. G. H. McINTYRE.

The name is R.

L. Borden. I know. Sir, that I cannot claim that the hon. member for Montmagny (Mr. A. Lavergne) should obey that hon. gentleman and I know further that my hon. friend the leader of the opposition (Mr. R. L. Borden) in speaking in that way had not had the benefit of the argument of my hon. friend from Jacques Cartier (Mr. Monk). Neither at that time nor on this occasion did he hear that argument and he will be at liberty to act as he at present thinks right. But. I can tell my hon. friend from Montmagny that he had the opportunity to convince the leader of the opposition (Mr. R. L. Borden) and in that case he failed. I agree entirely with the views expressed in a portion of his speech by the hon. leader of the opposition (Mr. R. L. Borden). I think those views were absolutely sound. Again, taking up that very matter of the payment of bonuses and applying it more strictly to the amendment here, I wish to point out that on that occasion the hon. leader of the opposition had not been converted-whether he is now or not I do not know-it is for him to say-to the view that the bonus system should not be used. The words that he used on that occasion were these :

In a word, I would be inclined to restrict our efforts so far as tile system of bonusing is concerned to the people of the British Isles.

But, the hon. member for Jacques Cartier does not restrict it in that way. I am sorry that the hou. leader of the opposition has not had the benefit of his argument, but we will be able to see later on whether my hon. friend, as he will have the right to, and as he has had a year to think over the matter, has changed his views. But, I will say in regard to the amendment of the hon. member for Jacques Cartier that the time will come when all this House will agree with it. I believe the time will come when we will no longer have reason to pay bonuses to secure immigration. The question is: Has that time come now?

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LIB
LIB

Gilbert Howard McIntyre

Liberal

Mr. G. II. McINTYRE.

That is virtually the question at the present time and it is a question of judgment. The bonus is not a vital and essential part; it has been a very valuable part, and It has done its work, and in many ways good work. But while I have no particular prejudice for or against a bonus, except in so far as it aids our chances to do good work in the majority of cases, rather than take my hon. friend's view in favour of abolishing the bonus I think that we should improve the character of the immigration, that we should endeavour to get the finest of other lands to come to us and in order to do that I would not only retain the bonus but I would double and treble it. What are the results to-day? Have we suffered very much from the present system of immigration? While it is true that there have been cases of immigrants not behaving well, while there have been cases of suffering largely through people not understanding our country, perhaps coming out in the autumn when they should come in the spring, we are not really suffering in Ontario, Quebec or the maritime provinces. If I look then to what is the actual condition of affairs in the west, if I take the figures that were given us in 1900, in Alberta I find that it then had a population of 185,412. Of that 185,412, which was the beginning of the province, there were British born people to the number of 111,138. It was a matter of surprise to me when I first ascertained these figures. I could hardly think them correct. It had struck me that with the influx of population from all countries the proportion of British born would not have been so great as 111,138. In addition to that, of United States immigrants, there were 43,000, making a total of 154,138. The balance from all other countries numbered 31,274. That can only be considered as an excellent start for any province. It by no means gives cause for anxiety. If we take the figures which have in the past been given us in regard to the increase of population in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and

Alberta, taking the years 1901 to 1906, in which year a census was taken, we find that there was an increase of 389,351. Of that increase British born people numbered 239,044, or 62 per cent of the whole increase were British born. Of the remainder, 71,000 came from the United States, or 18 per cent, leaving only 20 per cent of an increase altogether from all other sources combined. There again, sir, I feel that there is no cause for anxiety.

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LIB

Armand Renaud La Vergne

Liberal

Mr. A. LAVERGNE.

Will my hon. friend allow me to read him this? The sentences were pronounced at the assizes in the city of Montreal yesterday, and I see by the Montreal ' Gazette ' to-day that about four-fifths of those who were condemned were immigrants. I will read the names if my hon. friend desires me to do so.

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LIB

Gilbert Howard McIntyre

Liberal

Mr. G. H. McINTYRE.

I will accept my hon. friend's word without his naming them. There can be no doubt that in the immigration which is coming to this country there will be found many undesirables, but my hon. friend must bear this in mind that at the present moment we are not so entirely considering the character of all the immigrants who come in as the effect of the bonusing system upon immigration.

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LIB

Armand Renaud La Vergne

Liberal

Mr. A. LAVERGNE.

Railway labouring men are bonused, most of them are Italians, and most of the immigrants condemned are Italians; therefore, I must say that the immigrants who are condemned are the bonused ones.

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LIB

Gilbert Howard McIntyre

Liberal

Mr. G. H. McINTYRE.

In so far as Italian immigration is concerned we are paying no bonus on Italian immigrants as settlers. We are paying no bonus whatever on them, but from the very necessities of the case, in as much as we must open up our country and prepare means of transportation, we must get somebody to do that work. We apparently cannot get railway navvies from any other country than Italy. There was a time when railway companies were able to get railway navvies elsewhere, but that appears to be no longer possible. While my hon. friend may be perfectly correct in saying that in a particular lot of Italian railway navvies we will find they have been bonused; that is one of the exceptions to our rules, and it is because of the necessity that we are under of building railways. We do not expect these people to become settlers but the necessity of building railways makes it necessary that we shall make an exception in this ease. We must bonus incomers of that kind to build our roads and to open up our country. We realize in doing that that we may be bringing in many who are not so desirable, but these people will not like-lv become permanent settlers in our country.

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LIB

Frank Oliver (Minister of the Interior; Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs)

Liberal

Mr. OLIVER.

May I just correct my hon. friend on that point ? I wish to say, in order to clear the point up, that the bonus

is paid on farmers, farm labourers and railway labourers, wlio are citizens of certain countries and who are of certain occupations in these countries. Italy is not one of these countries for whose citizens bonuses are paid.

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LIB

Louis Lavergne

Liberal

Mr. A. LAYERGNE.

I never said that these Italians came from Italy; they came from the slums of Liverpool and London.

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CON
LIB

Gilbert Howard McIntyre

Liberal

Mr. G. H. McINTYRE.

While many of our friends on the opposition side of the House can find instances in which immigrants have not behaved well, I feel satisfied that a l'air examination of the conditions in Canada .o-day does not show that the immigration population has been of such a character that this proposed change needs essentially to be adopted. Neither does it give cause to any one to make much of it, but unfortunately a case of this kind is likely to be much more prominent than that of the man who quietly settles down to work. But, up to the present time I repeat that we have no cause for anxiety. What are the probabilities for the future? My hon. friends have dealt strongly with that, and I suppose one man's guess may be as good as another's. It is a matter of conjecture. The danger will not come from the quantity, but the danger will come from the quality and the grouping and locating of these people. I would not in the least endeavour to belittle any words of warning in regard to the quality of the immigration that we are getting or of the danger that might come from the bringing in of undesirables. I accept all these words of warning, and I would treat them not with scorn, but with great care. Words of warning are frequently valuable. Taking the figures we find though that for the full calendar year 1907, Canada received 277,376 immigrants, and from Great Britain we received 132,060, or about 50 per cent of the whole amount of the immigration that came to Canada in the calendar year 1907. From the United States there came 56,690, leaving-and I am grouping it in that way for certain reasons which I think not unfair-leaving 88,000 from all other countries combined. Here again it will be seen, that there is not necessarily, from these figures, any fear that we are inundating our country with nationalities that may not be properly assimilated. I do not see that there is any danger of making of our country what my hon. friend from Montmagny (Mr. A. Uavergne) called a ' mongrel nation.' It is true that among the immigrants there are some we may have some doubt about. I myself in looking over the list and noticing there were 14,626 from Galicia, wondered whether these would make good citizens or not. Tn my reading on this matter I have found, however, that a very fair character has been given these people by the leader of the opposition, and I am willing to receive Mr. G. H. MoINTYRF

his recommendation. He has stated that the children of these people will probably prove the equal of the children of other nationalities. I have found among the number coming in 1907, 6,206 Russian Jews, and again I feel that these are perhaps not the class of people I would like to see coming in great numbers. I have found there were 13,076 Italians, and if among them there are a great number of railroad navvies as I suppose there are, they are doing a very necessary work even if some of them are not very desirable. I have found there came In 7,80S Japanese, and this I understand is an immigration that is not likely to continue to any marked extent. I have noticed that the German immigration that year was about 2,500. I regret indeed that the number is not larger, and I hope it may be possible to obtain more German immigrants. The general result is that of the various nationalities that came to this country in 1907, Britain sent 50 per cent, the United States the proportion I have mentioned already, and consequently I have not been able to feel that alarm which some of my friends feel at the existing condition of affairs. But the fear is expressed, that with the incoming tide we will not be able to assimilate these new people. I do not belittle that fear. There is a fear expressed that the incoming tide will weaken our Canadian character or our Canadian institutions or our aspirations or our point of view. It may be fair to ask: What do my hon. friends mean by assimilation in such a case? I presume that the phrase will mean different things for different people. And what is the Canadian character or temperament of which we speak and which we fear may be injured V I think, Sir, that when our ancestors, the early immigrants came to this country, Englishmen and Frenchmen, and took up their work here 100 years or two ago, they were not Canadians in any sense that we may term them. They were simply Englishmen and Frenchmen transplanted from their natural home. That is all. In the process of time, however, living here, influenced I would judge by further immigration, influenced by their work, by their climate, by their environment, they did gather some characteristics which they transmitted to us, and this we call the Canadian temperament. I fancy that is what we mean when we speak of the Canadian character. If we have been able to acquire such a character, temperament, disposition, traits, it is the result mostly of our environment. Do we think that environment properly applied may not have a similar effect upon other immigrants who come here ? I think we may fairly expect that it shall. The results up to the present time have been fairly satisfactory in the character of our people. I do not undervalue the desire on the part of any one to retain a certain identity of character, although we must recognize that nations like individuals

must grow, and from time to time change. But, Sir, we are far from being a homogeneous people. My hon. friend from Montmagny (Mr. Armand Lavergne), and I probably look upon matters in a different light. AVe naturally speak a different language, although I must congratulate my hon. friend on having the language of the two nationalities as has also my hon. friend from Jacques Cartier (Mr. Monk).

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LIB
LIB

Gilbert Howard McIntyre

Liberal

Mr. G. H. McINTYRE.

To a limited extent. But if I were to say to my French Canadian compatriot : You are not a Canadian, you do not speak the language I do, your point of view is different, you cannot be assimilated; I think he would laugh at me and say; If there is a Canadian at all I am he; I am Canadian and Canadian only, I have no other land but Canada to look to: This is my own, my native land.

And, just in the same way my hon. friend might say to me: You are not entirely Canadian because you do not speak the language I do. But, is either of us not assimilated, are we not both Canadians, is the matter of language or of a certain difference in our point of view, in any way to be considered; are we not assimilated as Canadians ? Take again the races whence the British people have sprung-is Britain a thoroughly assimilated and homogeneous nation? AVhy, the British people are as complex as anything well could be; they are partly Saxon, partly Danish, partly Norman, and in many parts of the old country you find the old Celtic. The Scotchman from the North of Scotland is as different from the Englishman from the South of England as anything well could be, and the Irishman is different again. Will the Englishman say to the Scotchman: You are not assimilated because your language is somewhat different, your characteristics are different, your point of view is different from mine? The British nation is complex, it is made up of many races, but, notwithstanding, the people of Britain have the one national idea in many respects. They have certain ideas in common on the line of matters of government, on the line of individual liberty, but in other respects they are complex. Bet me take also as an illustration one that has come very much under my own eye, when we speak of assimilation. We have in Western Ontario a large grouping of German settlers in a number of counties : in AA7aterloo, in Perth, in the Greys. There is no finer class of people in Western Ontario than the German people who went in there and there have been no more useful citizens. The same wisdom that led them to choose out the best land when they came to settle here in the early days has characterized them in all their work, and they have shown aptitude along commercial lines as well as along agricultural lines If any one goes to the

town of Berlin he will be amazed at the growth of that town, and its multiplicity of manufacturing institutions, and it is essentially a German town. The same may be said of Preston, the same may be said of Hamburg, of Tavistock, of Hanover. In many ways the Germans have been the finest settlers we have had in the country, and I sincerely wish the Minister of the Interior could persuade more of them to come here. Shall I say to my German friend : You are not assimilated because you still cling largely to your own language, because your point of view on some questions is different from mine ? No, I would be ashamed to. It is association with the various nationalities which make up our country that makes me feel it is narrow and small in any man to think that Canada must be made up of his own particular stock and his own particular race. I do not fear in the least when I examine into matters of that kind and realize what we have achieved in the past. I feel that a man is really assimilated for all proper purposes in this country if he gains the lessons that come from our institutions, if he gains that selfreliance that our land will give him, if he gains self respect, if he becomes an honest, industrious and prosperous citizen, if he realizes the liberties that we have given him. And, Sir, if he feels all that and is loyal to this land, we may trust to it that no man can enjoy the liberties and privileges of Canada and enjoy the success which industry here will bring to him, without being contented with his lot and without being loyal to Canada to the core. There is no fear that his children when they grow up will be the least different from ours. Indeed, in many respects the descendants of these immigrants may be an improvement on ourselves. Every nationality who brings in its particular colouring here will bring in some virtue with it. There may be vices to check and there may be weaknesses to restrain, but you may depend upon it that the good sense of our people, the freedom of our laws, and the respect for the rights of the individual will cure the defects and that the virtues which these nationalities possess will be perpetuated and will be helpful to us all. I realize, Sir, that all immigrants will not be satisfactory, but I regret when I hear the sharpness of the criticism which is directed in many cases against the immigrants who come to this land and, who in my opinion should be received by us with a sympathetic spirit. When I listen to that sharp criticism which we sometimes hear I am inclined to ask the question: Who are we? Are we not the sons or the grandsons or the great grandsons of immigrants? I think we are. Who has come to this land because he had plenty of money and thought it a picnic to come to Canada ? Did not every one of our forefathers come here to better his condition? If we could with the eyes of to-day look

back and see our forefathers who landed in Canada, say a hundred years ago, would we, with our more fastidious taste, be impressed with their appearance? If we could see them-tradesmen, mechanics, clerks- labouring with the unaccustomed axe to cut down the forests, wouldn't we almost laugh at what we would regard as their feeble efforts?

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LIB

Armand Renaud La Vergne

Liberal

Mr. AEMAND LAVERGNE.

Does my hon. friend think that our forefathers ever looked like the Doukhobors?

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LIB

Gilbert Howard McIntyre

Liberal

Mr. G. H. McINTYRE.

My hon. friend has, I think, made a mistake. He has shown a narrowness of view that I think is rather unfortunate in. a young man of his parts and his acquirements. I will not follow the argument further. To seek out a very striking and unusual exception, and endeavour to lay down a general rule upon it is very unwise. My hon. friend himself perhaps had forefathers who were immigrants to this country, and no matter how fortunate or favourable may have been their circumstances, I think he will realize the force of the argument I was endeavouring to make, that our forefathers who came to this country did not come because they were doing well in the old land. They came, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred because there was pressure behind them to send them here; and when they came they did not or could not the moment they landed make the kind of immigrants we would like to have. We must have patience with these immigrants; for, while we may not make a really good citizen out of every immigrant who comes to this country, you may depend Upon it that his children will make good citizens. There are immigrant children running around the streets of this country to-day any one of whom may worthily fill the seat now occupied by my hon. friend from Montmaguy. This has been shown time and again. There is not such a radical difference between the nations of Europe as to prevent such things coming about. Take the young children, bring them up properly, give them education, and class distinctions will disappear, and those [DOT]of ability are bound to come to the front. The children of immigrants, who are now running around the streets, will yet share in the government of a prosperous country and be a credit to it. In regard also to the 'filling up of the Northwest, we should not forget that the really vital point there is to get in a sufficient number of native Canadians from the older provinces to give the colour, the example, the impetus, to the incoming tide of immigration. That we have most successfully done ; and there is very little doubt that when you get a happy and contented people on the land, you will have a safe people.

I would like to refer to an example taken by way of illustration, by my hon. friend from Montmagny from the history of the Mr. g. h. McIntyre.

United States. As he put it, it was not put unfairly; and if you look at it simply from the point of view he did, and accept the figures he gave, you might have some cause for anxiety and alarm. He stated that the United States had a population of fifty millions before it received as large a flow of immigration as ours of last year, that is, 300,000; and then he used the argument that on account Of the incoming immigration the United States had become alarmed-that with its 80,000,000 people it was now receiving 1,000,000 immigrants a year, and was restricting its immigration; and he used the argument that with our population of

6.000. 000 we could not afford to let 300,000 people annually come in. On the face of it that argument has some force and it should be carefully considered; but if you examine it, you will find that there are some very marked points which my hon. friend has either overlooked or has not emphasized. The United States have in the first place the unassimilated millions on millions of negro population. This makes for them a question intensely vital and extremely difficult. We have no such question to face. With them it is a most troublesome question, and the outcome of it no man can tell. Take again another feature. My hon. friend, in his figures of immigrants coming to Canada, spoke of so many thousands of them being foreign born. Now, the term foreign-born is correctly used; but does it mean for us what it means to the United States? There is a very marked difference indeed. Of the million immigrants who flow into the United States how many speak the same language as the predominant language of the country, the English? Comparatively few. The most of them are people who speak an alien language, who are unaccustomed to the individual liberties given to the people of the United States and who are unused to the form of government prevailing there. Does that condition compare at all with the condition in this country? Take our Canadian immigration of

300.000. The great bulk of these people speak the language of the majority in this country; we have not to assimilate them in that respect. Every British immigrant who comes to Canada is accustomed to parliamentary government; the mother of parliaments was created in the land from which he comes. Every immigrant who comes from the United States speaks the language of the majority in this country, and is trained in a form of government almost identical with our own. The term foreign-born does not mean in Canada, in any respect, what it does in the United States. And so. while I feel that the argument my hon. friend used is somewhat plausible as he used it, it requires only a little examination to show that it does not at all apply to the matter in hand. An Englishman who came to Canada a year ago is not foreign-born in any true sense of the term; he Is a

part of the British empire in any case; he speaks one of our two languages; he has been trained to our system of government; and he has a sense of individual liberty and responsibility.

_ Again, there is this great difference in the immigration that comes to these two countries. In the United States, with their lands exhausted, there is a tendency on the part of immigrants to gather together in groups in large cities, speaking only their own language, and ruled by their own organizations. It is a very striking fact that in Greater New York there is to-day the largest Jewish community in the worid. No such thing is possible in Canada. The more we send the immigrants to the free lands of the west, the less danger there will be, if they are settled, not in groups by themselves, but among others. I have no doubt of the result as long as proper care is taken.

While I have spoken in that way, and while I feel that the really bad immigrants are not numerous, although given great prominence, I do not in any way belittle the arguments used in favour of a good class of immigrants in this country. I desire it with all the force of my hon. friends who have spoken on this subject, and I feel that a very great responsibility is thrown on the Minister of the Interior. My hon. friend has received very hard knocks and much sharp criticism in this House, and I cannot say that he returns the soft answer ; I think he invites the combat.

At the same time my hon. friend may be assured he has won the respect and confidence of both sides of the House in his good intent and sincerity, and that will prove to him a great assistance indeed in facing his work. No doubt he realizes the very great responsibility that is attached to his work. In this House at times we have to face conditions that are irrevocable, that we cannot change. Our immigration policy is not one of these. We could at any moment change that policy and put up the bars to stop immigration and it is my hon. friend who has the responsibility. He stands at the gate, he forms our immigration policy, and just as he devises and plans so he gives a colouring to the new nation. He. more than any other man in this House or country, is building up the nation, and I would earnestly impress on him the desirability of every effort to bring in the very finest class of immigrants and give us the best chance possible to make the Canadian nation of the best quality possible. The responsibility lies with him, and while I wish to impress on him more and more the sense of that great responsibility, at the same time, while the circumstances' may give rise to some anxiety and concern, there is not at present any real necessity for alarm.

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CON

Eugène Paquet

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. E. PAQUET (I,'Islet).

(Translation.) Mr. Speaker, I wish to congratulate the hon. member for South Perth (Mr. McIntyre) for

the magnificent speech he has just delivered, and which is worthy of the attention of this House. I must also congratulate him for his unceasing efforts in mastering our language and his endeavours in getting better acquainted with the character and spirit of the French race in Canada.

Mr. Speaker, while the attention of the old impoverished nations of Europe is fastened upon the solution of the problem of emigration, the stronger and more valorous races of the new world are anxiously seeking to settle the social problem of immigration. In 1907, the United States got amended to a considerable extent its immigration legislation and appointed a commission to investigate the whole question. At that time, the first ministers of the British colonies were giving their attention to that question while in conference in Loudon. The Canadian parliament also discussed in a remarkable manner the Asiatic immigration, that from the United States, from the British Isles and from continental Europe. The legislators in the House of Commons are to-day endeavouring to perform their duty toward the community in devoting a few hours to the discussion of this most important subject. In the course of my remarks I shall ask the government to abolish the bonus system, while at the same time extending a substantial and effective aid to desirable immigration. According to an economist, Canada with its wealth of agricultural, forest and mineral resources is man's last reserve, his furthermost boundary. Thanks to the two great races that live in this country, we are building up a vast national structure wherein people from the United States and Europe come to seek liberty and plenty.

The Canadian people must have common aspirations, but in order to reach that worthy object, we must exercise a special supervision over the class of immigrants coming into Canada. These should feel like us that they are bound to work for the material and moral welfare of Canada, and this object should be their bequest to their children in this new and hospitable land. In our task of selecting immigrants, we should live up to our great traditions; we must allow ourselves to be prompted by the teachings of our history: we must recail a glorious past and call to memory the lessons taught to posterity by the founders of Canada. Eustel de Coulnnges has the following to say:

There is no such a thing as a dead past for man. He may forget it, but it still lives in him. For, such as he may be at different periods of his life, he is the product and a diminutive of all former mental evolutions. If he goes down into his soul, he may trace back and distinguish those various periods by what each of them left within him.

These principles we must apply to our history and cast a retrospective look upon

our traditions. Immigrants for New France were selected with the most minute care. Our forefathers were of the most noble and most generous blood of France. Our ancestors came from the old provinces of Normandy, of Anjon, of Pieardie, of Bri-tany, those chivalrous aud highly moral pioneers of the church, of freedom and of France. Those men who at the time of Louis the Great were governing the mother country, were actuated by the desire of creating a new France beyond the seas, something like an expanse of their native laud. And they were very strict in the selection of the settlers. French Canada is the work of great patriots and able legislators. French Canada is the offspring of the best French peasantry; of men gifted with the highest moral and physical qualities and civic virtue; enteiprising, industrious, brave and upright men. Historical documents are there to show how very scrupulously were selected the French women which were sent to New France by Richelieu, Colbert, Talon and de Laval. The most rigid moralists are forced to admire the work of the emigrated girls of the seventeenth century.

Historians as a whole are agreed upon the distinguished origin of the French Canadians. And they were able to grow, to prosper and to spread despite all their trials, and to devote the whole power of their national spirit, the whole strength of their powerful moral and physical organization to the development of Canada. Mr. Claudio Jannet wrote thus of the moral pre-eminence of the various elements which established the Canadian colony:

Fom the time of Champlain down to the last day of the French domination, the different governments which ruled the colony have always made it a point to exclude from the country individuals of a doubtful moral character.

And an orator said:

. The reason of our glory and strength to-day is not simply because we are of French stock, hut because we sprang from France at a time in her history when she was at the apex of glory and when the hand that rocked our cradle was still amenable to the word of God.

After the cession of Canada to England, the Anglo-Saxon race grew side by side with us. At the close of the war of American independence, in 1783, the United Empire Loyalists, who remained true to the British Crown during the rebellion, and who sustained the persecution of their revolted brethren, came by thousands to the Canadian province. According to an author:

' The United Empire Loyalists brought forth to Canada the richest blood that was up to then the pride of the thirteen American colonies.' These emigrants were the founders of the new British empire in America. Since then they have progressed steadily and they are worthy of admiration.

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CON

Eugène Paquet

Conservative (1867-1942)

Mr. PAQUET.

We also are proud of their success. Mr. Hall, in his work entitled ' Immigration/ says: ' We must not forget that New England's first settlers were selected with the utmost care.' We may say it is only a fancy, but I will answer No, it is our history, our glorious past. And when those records are filled with heroic deeds they should be placed before the people of this country.

I recognize, Air. Speaker, the importance, the necessity for the government and parliament, to endeavour to develop a desirable class of immigration. There is no doubt but that the better suited classes to develop Canada's resources are the descendants of France and the descendants of Loyalists, or better, the Canadians. In order to follow up our great traditions, we must above all encourage farmers to come to Canada. Every province of this country has thousands upon thousands of acres of available agricultural lands which will eventually be the great purveyors of Europe as well as the east owing to their great producing power. We need settlers to develop our unoccupied lands in order to increase the production and the national wealth. We could get a great many desirable farmers in more than one country, and these will be able in the noble pursuits of agriculture to enhance the development of this country.

The provincial authorities of Quebec have adopted a very commendable policy on immigration. I will acquaint the House of it by reading a letter from Mr. RenS Dupont, which is addressed to the editors of newspapers in Canada, and which reads thus:

Quebec, January 8, 1908.

Mr. Editor,-In order to give an impetus to immigration in the province of Quebec, the Interior Department has just authorized the organization of ail information bureau, relating to farm land under cultivation, and available, so as to inform all intended purchasers of such farms.

* So far such information were lacking altogether, although we had often received demands for the sale of settled farms. This branch of the department will he available to every one intending to acquire a farm in any part of the country, or to whoever wishes to sell his farm for some purpose or other.

I include for your information a blank form which we send to all who intend disposing of their farm, and I would he very much pleased if you could give a word of encouragement to our countrymen about this new scheme in your valuable paper.

Thanking you beforehand for the interest vou display towards colonization, and for services which vou are always ready to render to that cause. I have the honour to beg you to believe in the most distinguished sentiments of

Tour faithful servant.

RENE DUPONT, Colonization agent.

A statement and classification of all available farms may have good results, especially

in those localities where emigration of our countrymen to the United States has caused untold injury to the farm industry. This policy may have a helpful effect in bringing back our citizens to Canada.

Farm hands and domestic servants are also a desirable class of immigration if only we take the trouble of selecting them. Allow me to quote the wmrds of my colleague in the legislature, they are the expression of my own opinion:

' Agriculture suffers from a shortage of help on the farms. It is very difficult to get farm labourers and domestics, notwithstanding the high wages which are offered. It is a state of things which is an impediment to the cultivation of our farms and tends to discourage the agriculturists. The time has really come for the government to organize a movement to bring into Canada farm labourers, which could be easily found in France and Belgium if serious and persistent efforts were made. It is a very serious question. It exists in a very acute state in certain localities.'

In the province of Ontario the Minister of the Interior has under control a great many agents whose duties are to find employment for farm labourers. I was reading in ' La Patrie,' of the 9th of March.

Ottawa, March 9, 1908.

Special to ' La Patrie.'-As ' La Patrie ' said a tew days ago. that the Hon. Mr. Oliver, at the request of the French-speaking members of the cabinet, has decided to appoint ill each county of the province of Quebec, one agent whose duty will be to find, free of charge, employment as farm labourers or domestics for the immigrants wishing to settle in the province. This decision will be oi very great advantage to the farmers and to the emigration agents, who will be in position to communicate with the provincial asrents and get exactly the class of immigrants which is necessary. Following that decision, the Minister of the Interior has just appointed twenty agents in the province of Quebec, and other denominations will soon follow.

Since that date, new agents have been appointed. There is a lack of the farm labourers in the province of Quebec. The president of the colonization and repatriation of Montreal stated in January, 1908 : [DOT] The decision which we have taken has had the good result of aiding the farmers in getting help and to secure servants for a good number of families. Our employment bureau have in this way found employment for a good many hundreds of farm labourers and servants and besides that, they have been the means by which individuals and industrials have been able to get the same advantage.'

In some localities our labourers will fear the competition of farm labourers coming from the outside. One of the most distinguished citizens of the county which I have the honour to represent was writing me last week: ' The lion. Mr. Oliver has decided to appoint in each comity of the province of Quebec an agent whose duty will be to recruit farm labourers and servants so as to help our farmers. Would the result of this movement, whose object is noble, he to increase the exodus of our fellow-countrymen towards the cities and industrial centers of the United States? Would it not be the means of introducing in our parishes socialists and anti-clericals ? Is there no danger of bringing in our country elements which will brake harmony between the clergy and the people?'

1 put this letter before this House believing that it contains opinions worthy of consideration. The government must be very careful in selecting and appointing the agents. They should be allowed to introduce in the midst of our moral populations only emigrants whose character is well known.

On the 15th of April, 1907, I was urging upon the government to make the strongest and most generous efforts to bring in this country desirable French and Belgium immigrants. The government has adopted a more active policy towards France. Three new immigration agents have been appointed. It seems as if measures have been taken for a larger distribution of literature and information. The Minister of the Interior has secured the active co-operation of many French immigration agencies. These agencies will get commission on the immigrants belonging to certain classes which they will send to Canada.

In the past the government has thought that it was its duty to pay bonuses in order to aid and encourage immigration. Bonuses were offered to booking agents to encourage them to send immigrants from Great Britain. At that time New Zealand, Australia and Argentine Republic were spending very large amounts in assisting immigration by way of bonuses. But the booking agents have, unfortunately, no interests in looking to the character and the morality of the immigrants. They have no other care naturally than to send the greatest number possible of immigrants to Canada so as to get more premiums. What do they care about the character? What do they care about the morality of our population ? I am almost sure of it the government will soon abandon this policy. There is a fear that during this financial and commercial stringency, the suspension of payments of bonuses on immigrants would bring a crisis, but I think the last commercial crisis has had the effect of consolidating our credit in the world.

During the fiscal year 1906-7, 34,647 immigrants came into the country from the United States. The premiums paid in the United States amounted to $4,743. and these American immigrants brought with them values amounting to some fortv millions of dollars. During the nine months of the fiscal year 1906-7, 235,32S immigrants came

into Canada, on 20,492 of which a bonus was paid. Excellent results might be obtained in the United States, in Great Britain and in continental Europe without resorting to the bonus system. Indeed, economic conditions in Canada are changing for the better. The country is growing marvellously and becoming known among civilized nations. In several of these, the name of Canada may be said to be famous, and will soon attract emigrants, as does now that of the United States.

In every country with which we entertain agricultural, commercial or industrial relations, we should' have emigration and commercial agents understanding our wants and our aims. Such agents might deliver lectures and give information to all classes. They should be educated men and well informed as to our laws, resources and economic conditions. They should be honest, progressive and capable of helping to develop social, commercial and industrial relations. A journalist remarked -with great truth, on the 7th April last : ' A commission composed of men conversant with our commercial situation and making a study of the markets of the world with a view of finding an outlet for our manufactured articles and information for our importers, would help the rapid and profitable development of our foreign trade, which has shown of late years such prodigious powers of expansion. It would create a demand for our goods abroad, and by spreading the knowledge of the natural wealth we possess, would bring to us, in a continual and abundant stream, new capital and very desirable immigration.'

Special delegates might also be sent abroad-emigrants who have been successful here. They would speak of their success on their native soil and become the very best of emigrant agents. We should also invite here, more frequently than we do. members of the foreign press and of the Boards of Trade of the United States and of Europe. These distinguished visitors would admire and speak of our natural wealth, thus promoting desirable emigration.

The people of Britain and of the United States are pretty well acquainted with our resources and economic conditions. Yesterday, the Canadian press foreshadowed a great immigration movement to Canada from the American republic. Most American immigrants are farmers enjoying a certain amount of wealth. Among them may be found a certain number of Canadians. Canadians from Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Dakota are being attracted here by our agricultural development and progress.

French Canadians have crossed to the States seeking that intense industrial life which the country affords. The province of Quebec, thanks to technical education, to the development of its agricultural, forest and mining wealth, is bound to become a Mr. PAQUET.

great industrial centre. The development of our industries will be exceedingly favourable to the work of repatriation. In the midst of the human throng massed in great American cities, in that great crucible where races are mixed, expatriated French Canadians have preserved the distinctive character of our national genius. Their ideas, feeling and ideals are not very faraway from those which we ourselves entertain. Repatriated French Canadians are among our best immigrants.

Topic:   SUPPLY-IMMIGRATION.
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April 22, 1908